Leyden (Dutch pron. Ll-den), a town of Holland, on the Old Rhine, 5 miles from the North Sea, and by rail 9 miles N. by W. of The Hague and 31 W. of Utrecht. It is a typical Dutch town, spotlessly clean, with canals bordered by avenues, and sleepy squares and streets. It has an air of academic repose, and is the seat of a celebrated university, which formerly attracted students from all parts of Europe, including Prince Rupert, Sir Thomas Browne, Evelyn, Boswell, Goldsmith, John Wilkes, Alexander Carlyle, and Alexander Monro; whilst among its professors and other students have been Arminius, Gomarus, Grotius, Descartes, Salinasius, Scaliger, Boerhaave, Hem-sterhuis, LinnAeus, Ruhnken, Valckenaer, etc. It was founded in 1575 by William of Orange as a reward to the citizens for their heroic twelve months' defence against the Spaniards (1573-74). It has about 50 teachers and 800 students; a library of 160,000 volumes and 5000 oriental and other MSS. ; a botanic garden ; a magnificent museum of natural history, etc. The town art museum contains pictures by Rembrandt, Jan Steen, Gerard Douw, Lucas of Leyden, the family Mieris - all natives of the town, and others. Here too were born some of the Elzevirs, the celebrated printers, and John of Leyden, the Anabaptist. The quaint and picturesque town-hall dates from 1574-98. In the centre of the town stands an old round tower, said to date from the Roman occupation. Leyden was in the 15th century famous all over Europe for its manufactured cloth, baize, and camlet. The same industries, but to a much less extent, together with the manufacture of cotton, twine, and yarn, the dyeing of cloth and leather, etc, are still carried on. In 1650 the pop. numbered 100,000; but a century later it had fallen to 75,000, and by 1800 to 30,000. In 1876 it was 40,724, and 56,000 in 1905.