Libau (Lee'bow), a seaport and watering-place of Courland, in Russia, on the Baltic, 146 miles by rail W. by S. of Riga. Its fine harbour admits vessels that draw 17 and 18 feet, and is free from ice except for a fortnight in the year. The exports consist of grain, linseed and linseed oil-cake, petroleum, eggs, spirits, flax, hemp, etc.; the imports of coals, herrings, artificial manures, cotton, dye-wood, and iron. In 1890 the Russian government began to construct a first-class naval harbour; there already existed shipbuilding-yards and a school of navigation. The industries include iron-founding, brewing, etc. Trinity Church contains an organ (1886), one of the largest in the world. Pop. 65,540.
Liberton ('leper town '), a Midlothian village, 2 1/4 miles SSE. of Edinburgh. Pop. 550.
Libourne, a town in the French dep. of Gironde, at the confluence of the Isle with the tidal Dordogne, 22 miles by rail NB. of Bordeaux. It is one of the ancient free towns founded by the English, about 1269. Woollens and military clothing are manufactured. Pop. 18,245.
Libyan Desert. See Sahara.
Libyan Hills. See Egypt, p. 247.
Liddesdale (Lidsdale), in Roxburghshire, the valley of Liddel Water, which flows 27 miles SSW. near to or along the Border, till it joins the Esk 12 miles N. of Carlisle. See a work by R. B. Armstrong (1883).
Liechtenstein, a mountainous independent principality of Europe, separated from Switzerland on the west by the Rhine; on the east it is bounded by Vorarlberg. Area, 61 sq. m.; pop. 9634. The chief town, Vaduz or Liechtenstein (pop. 1139), lies 28 miles SSW. of Bregenz on Lake Constance. The Prince of Liechtenstein possesses extensive estates in Austria, Prussia, and Saxony. The little state is a constitutional sovereignty, and belongs to the Austrian customs, postal, judicial, and coinage system.
Liegnitz, a town of Prussian Silesia, on the Katzbach, 38 miles W. by N. of Breslau. In the neighbourhood (Wahlstadt) the Mongols in 1241 defeated the Poles, and filled nine sacks with the ears of their slaughtered foes. Liegnitz came to Prussia in 1742. Here in 1760 Frederick the Great routed the Austrians, and in 1813 Blucher defeated the French (Katzbach). It is now a place of great industrial activity, with iron-foundries, machine-shops, pianoforte-factories, and manufactures of woollens, cloth, hats, gloves, etc. Pop. 56,000.