Lichfield (Litch'field), a municipal (and till 1885 parliamentary) borough of Staffordshire, and the seat of a bishopric, is pleasantly situated in a valley watered by an affluent of the Trent, 15 miles SE. of Stafford and 118 NW. of London. Pop. (1801) 4712; (1901) 7902. Its cathedral - a noble pile, measuring 411 feet by 66 (or 149 across the transepts), and surmounted by three towers with spires, the central 258 feet high-dates from the 13th century, when the Mercian see, founded in 656, and constituted an archbishopric 786-800, was, after its translation to Chester in 1075, and subsequently thence to Coventry, re-established here at its original seat. Despoiled, and with its central tower beaten down during the siege of Lichfield by the parliamentarians (1643), the cathedral was subsequently (1661-70) effectively repaired, and 1860-84 both the exterior and interior were ably restored at a cost exceeding £40,000. At the north-east angle of the Close, adjoining the cathedral, is the Bishop's Palace (1687), and hard by once stood the vanished castle, with memories of Richard II. Amongst other edifices may be noted the grammar-school, at which Addison, Dr Johnson, and Garrick were educated ; two hospitals founded 1495 and 1504; the theological college (1857); and a concert hall. A statue of Dr Johnson was erected in 1838 in the market-place, opposite the house in which he was born, and which was bought by a Mr Johnson in 1887 'to save it from the hands of spoilers.' Among residents or natives have been Ashmole, Bishop Newton, Dr Darwin, his biographer Miss Seward, and Honora Sneyd, afterwards Mrs Edgeworth. See works by Harwood (1806) and Beresford (' Diocesan Histories' series, 1883).