Lincoln (Lin'con), the capital of Lincolnshire, and a parliamentary, county, and municipal borough, is situated on the Witham, 42 miles S. of Hull, 33 NE. of Nottingham, and 130 N. by W. of London. Built on the slope of a hill, which rises 210 feet above the river, and is crowned by the cathedral, the city is imposing in effect, and can be seen from afar in the flat fen-country. It is very ancient, is irregularly laid out, and contains many interesting specimens of early architecture - notably the castle, commenced in 1086 by William I. ; the Newport Gate, or Roman arch, on the north side of the city; the Exchequer and Stonebow gateways, the latter supporting a guildhall of mediaeval architecture ; the Jew's House (Norman), associated with the legend of Hugh of Lincoln; St Mary's Guild (Norman); and the middle grammar-school, founded in 1567 in the Grey Friars. But the chief glory of Lincoln is its cathedral, admittedly one of the finest in England. Erected between 1075 and 1501, it measures 524 feet by 82 (or 250 across the transepts), and in style is mainly Early English. Its matchless central tower (1235-1311; 265 feet high) was previous to 1547 surmounted by a spire, as till 1808 were the two western towers (completed 1450). Other noticeable features are the west front (partly Norman), with its three doorways (1123); the Galilee or south porch (c. 1240); the Decorated choir (1254); the decagonal chapter-house ; Norman font (1075-93); and Great Tom of Lincoln (5 1/2 tons), hung in the central tower, which also contains a mellow-chiming clock (1880). There are also a county hall (1823-26), theological college, school of science, and bishop's palace (1887) embodied with a former palace of 1149. Several iron-foundries and important manufactories of agricultural machinery are in operation here, and an active trade is done in flour. The spring horse-fair is one of the largest in the world, and the race-meetings date back to James I.'s reign. One member is returned to parliament for the city. In the history of Lincoln the most noteworthy incidents have been frequent invasions by the Danes (786-875); great fires (1110 and 1124); a battle (1141) between the adherents of Stephen and the Empress Matilda; the second coronation of Henry II. (1155-58); an earthquake (1185); the battle of Lincoln, or Lewis Fair, fought 4th June 1218 ; five parliaments (1301-86); and lastly, the siege of the town, and desecration of the cathedral, by the parliamentarians (1644). Pop. (1801) 7398 ; (1881) 37,313 ; (1901) 48.784.
Lincoln, (1) capital of Nebraska, on Salt Creek, 66 miles by rail SW. of Omaha. Laid out in 1867, it is a handsome and thriving city, with state capitol, university, prison, insane asylum, and the United States court-house. There are flour and planing mills, foundries, etc.; limestone is largely quarried, and there are extensive salt-works in connection with brine-springs near by. Pop. (1880) 13,003 ; (1900) 40,169. - (2) Capital of Logan county, Illinois, 28 miles NNE. of Springfield, manufactures castings and farm-implements. Here are Lincoln University (Cumberland Presbyterian) and a state asylum for feeble-minded children. Pop. 9200.-(3) A town of Rhode Island, 6 miles by rail N. of Providence, containing several cotton-manufacturing villages. Pop. 8950.
Lincoln, Mount, a peak (14,297 feet) of the Rocky Mountains, in Colorado, 8 miles NE. of Leadville. A railway was made to silver-mining works at the summit, and here is a meteorological station conducted by Harvard College.