Long Island, an island which forms three counties of New York state, bounded by Long Island Sound, the Atlantic, and the East River (spanned by the Brooklyn suspension bridge). It is 115 miles long, 12 to 24 wide, and 1682 sq. m. in area. On its south shore is a series of lagoons, the largest 40 miles long and 5 or 6 wide. A line of low hills rises in the interior to 384 feet. There are numerous small lakes and watercourses, and market-gardening is carried on with success - for the most part by Germans. But much of the island is waste land or forest, and such popular watering-places as Coney Island are planted among deserts of sand. There is still some game, and the fisheries and oyster-beds are very valuable. The chief towns are Brooklyn, Long Island City, and Flushing. Creedinoor is the principal American rifle-range.
Long Island Sound, lying between Long Island and the mainland of New York and Connecticut, is from 2 to 20 miles wide, and from 75 to about 200 feet in depth.
Long Island City, on Long Island, separated from New York City by the East River, and from Brooklyn by the navigable Newtown Creek, was formed in 1870 from five villages. Pop. (1880) 17,129 ; (1900) 48,272. It is now included in the borough of Queens, New York City.
Longleat, the seat of the Marquis of Bath, in Wiltshire, 4 1/2 miles SW. of Warminster. It is one of the noblest Elizabethan mansions in the kingdom, with a fine collection of portraits, memories of Bishop Ken, and a magnificent park.
Long Melford. See Melford.
Longridge, a small manufacturing town of Lancashire, 6 1/4 miles by rail NE. of Preston, on the side of the Longridge Fell, which extends 2 1/2 miles NE. to the Yorkshire boundary. Here are Preston reservoirs and manufactures of cotton, nails, etc. Pop. 4301. See Tom C. Smith, History of Longridge (Preston, 1889).
Longton, a municipal borough of Staffordshire, at the southern extremity of the Potteries, 2 1/2 miles SE. of Stoke-upon-Trent, and included within its parliamentary boundary. It was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1865. The prosperity of the town is due to the manufacture of china and earthenware, though malting, brewing, and brick-making are also carried on. Close by are ironworks and collieries. Pop. (1851) 15,149 ; (1881) 18,620 ; (1901) 35,815, the borough having been extended in 1883.
Longwood. See St Helena.
Longwy (Long-wee'), a small town in the extreme north of the French dep. of Meurthe-et-Moselle, 18 miles WSW. of Luxemburg. Its fortress capitulated to the Prussians in 1792,1815, and 1871. Pop. 7448.
Lons-le-Saunier (Long-le-Soan-yay'), capital of the French dep. of the Jura, stands in a basin of the Jura Mountains, surrounded with vine-clad hills, 42 miles by rail E. by S. of Chalon-sur-Saone. It was founded in the 4th century, when its salt-springs were discovered ; these are still in use for bathing, and salt is manufactured. Population, 10,500. Rouget de Lisle, the author of the Marseillaise, was born here.