Lucca (Loolc'ka; anc. Luca), chief town of an Italian province, is situated in a plain, bounded by picturesque hills and watered by the Serchio, 14 miles by rail NE. of Pisa. 'Lucca the Industrious' has a great trade in olive-oil and silk. The cathedral, begun in 1063, has a cedar crucifix reputed to have been brought hither in 782. There are nearly forty other churches, some dating from the 7th and 8th centuries. A splendid aqueduct (1820) supplies the town with water from the Pisan hills. The municipal buildings (1578) contain valuable paintings. Lucca was a bishopric as early as 347, and in 1726 was made an archbishopric. The environs abound in delightful villas. In a charming valley, 16 miles N., are the mineral baths of Lucca (96o to 136° F.), which have been famous since the 15th century. Pop. 72,970.
Lucera (Loo-tchay'ra; anc. Luceria), a town of southern Italy, 12 miles by rail NW. of Foggia, has a cathedral (1302), and a ruined castle of Frederick II. Pop. 17,067.
Luderitzland, a name given to Angra-Pequena (q.v.) and the adjoining territory.
Ludgvan, a Cornish village, 3 miles NE. of Penzance. Pop. of urban district, 2274.
Ludhiana (Loodiahna), a town of the Punjab, 8 miles from the south bank of the Sutlej. It was founded in 1480, and is now a thriving corn-mart, with manufactures of Cashmere shawls, scarves, cottons, turbans, furniture, and carriages. Pop. 48,334.
Ludwigsburg (Lood'vigsboorg'), a town of Wur-temberg, 8 miles N. of Stuttgart. It grew up round a ducal hunting castle (1704), and has a military school and a royal castle, with picture-gallery and splendid gardens. Pop. 20,000. D. F. Strauss and Kerner were natives.
Ludwigscanal. See Danube.
Ludwigshafen (Lood'vigs-hah'fen), a town of the Bavarian Palatinate, on the Rhine's left bank, opposite Mannheim. Granted town rights only in 1859, it has grown rapidly owing to its manufactures (soda, aniline dyes, wagons, &c). Pop. (1864) 3911; (1875) 12,093 ; (1900) 61,920.
Lugano (Loogah'no), a town in the Swiss canton of Ticino, on the NW. shore of the Lake of Lugano, 49 miles by rail N. by W. from Milan. In appearance the place is thoroughly Italian; from Monte Salvatore (2982 feet) a magnificent view may be obtained. Pop. 9129. - The Lake of Lugano, also called Ceresio, lies at the southern foot of the Alps, 889 feet above sea-level. Its length is 14 1/2 miles, average breadth 1 1/4 mile; area, 19 1/2 sq. m. ; maximum depth 915 feet, and average depth 246.