Luxemburg (Fr. Luxembourg; old Ger. Lutzel-burg), since 1815 an independent grand-duchy, wedged in between France, Prussia, and Belgium. It consists of a plateau, furrowed with valleys, and connecting together the uplands of Lorraine, the Forest of Ardennes, and the Eifel; nearly all its streams flow to the Moselle, which for some 20 miles forms its eastern border. The country is well wooded, yields wheat and wine, and is rich in iron ore. Area, 998 sq. m. ; pop. (1871) 197,528 ; (1900) 236,543, nearly all Catholics, and of Low German stock, though French is the language of the educated classes. For commercial purposes Luxemburg is included in the German customs union. The grand-duke - the king of Holland till 1890, and since then the Duke of Nassau - is the head of the House of Orange-Nassau. - The Belgian province of Luxemburg, which down to 1839 formed part of the grand-duchy, constitutes the south-eastern extremity of the kingdom of Belgium. Area, 1706 sq. m.; pop. (1902) 222,500. Chief town, Arlon. - Luxemburg, the capital of the grand-duchy, by rail is 42 miles N. of Metz and 32 SW. of Treves. Its situation has often been compared to that of Jerusalem : the city stands on a rocky platform, connected with the neighbouring country only on the west, and elsewhere engirt by a steep valley, 200 feet deep, in which nestle the industrial suburbs of Klausen, Pfaffenthal, and Grund. The intermediate gorges are crossed by fine viaducts. The Spaniards, Austrians, French, and Dutch, who successively held possession of the town, increased and strengthened its fortifications, hewn, like those of Gibraltar, in great part out of the solid rock. But they were demolished in accordance with the treaty of London of 1867, and the site of the walls has been laid out as beautiful gardens. There are in the town the ruins of Count Mansfeld's palace, the cathedral (1613), the government house, and the athenAeum. There are manufactures of cotton, cloth, and brandy, and a trade in woollen and leather goods. Pop. 21,000.