Madras' City (native Chennapatnam) is situated on the Coromandel Coast of India in 13° 4' N. lat. and 80° 17' E. long., and is the capital of the presidency of the same name. The town, originally a number of separate villages, extends 9 miles along the shore, and covers an area of 27 sq. m. The roadstead, in which till quite recently all ships had to lie, is very much exposed ; a pier was erected in 1859-62; a harbour (1876) was seriously damaged in 1881, but greatly facilitates the landing of cargo during rough weather-passengers have no longer to cross the heavy surf in going to or coining from steamers. The port is liable to be visited by cyclones towards the end of May and beginning of June, when the south-west monsoon sets in, and in October, November, and early December, during the prevalence of the north-east monsoon. The climate is hot, moderately dry, and on the whole healthy, the rainfall averaging 49 inches, and the mean temperature 82° F. On the shore, midway between N. and S., is Fort St George (1750), the original settlement. North of the fort lies Black Town, which contains most of the business offices and a crowded native population ; south of it lies Triplicane, the chief Mohammedan centre. Inland and to the extreme south lie the houses chiefly occupied by Europeans, most of which stand in large 'compounds' surrounded by trees. Madras cannot compete with Calcutta or Bombay in magnificent public buildings, yet Government House, the Chepauk Palace, the Senate House, St Andrew's Kirk, St George's Cathedral (with Chantrey's monument to Bishop Heber), the Madras Club, the post-office, and the new High Court buildings are worthy of note. Many of the buildings are rendered striking by the free use of polished chunam made from shell lime. The Madras University, founded in 1857, is simply an examining body, the teaching being done by affiliated colleges throughout the presidency. In addition to colleges for the study of arts, medicine, and engineering, there are, in or near the city, a School of Art, a College of Agriculture, a branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, and a large museum, containing very valuable collections of Indian coins and of sculptured marbles from the Buddhist 'tope' at Amravati. The chief articles of export are coffee, tea, cotton, grain, hides, indigo, oil-seeds, dye-stuffs, sugar, and horns. Pop. (1871) 397,552; (1901) 509,346, of whom between 4000 and 5000 were Europeans, 12,000 Eurasians, 54,000 Mohammedans, and the rest chiefly Hindus.