Magdale'na, the principal river of Colombia, rises in the Central Cordillera, only 8 miles from the source of the Cauca. These streams flow north on either side of the Cordillera, uniting about 130 miles from the sea. The Magdalena, which ends in a large delta, is closed to sea-going vessels by a bar ; merchandise is conveyed by a railway (18 miles) from Barranquilla to Puerto Colombia, whence it is navigable for 500 miles.

Magdalen Islands

Mag'dalen Islands, a small group near the centre of the Gulf of St Lawrence, 54 miles NW. of Cape Breton Island. The largest is Coffin's Island. Pop. 5172.

Magee Island

Magee' Island (g hard), a low-lying peninsular portion of County Antrim, nearly severed from the mainland by Lough Larne.


Magellan (g hard), Strait of, separates South America from Tierra del Fuego. It is 375 miles long, and its breadth varies mostly between 12 and 17 miles. Discovered by Magellan in 1520, it was explored by King and Fitzroy in the Adventure and Beagle (1826-36). The narrower western half is shut in by steep, wooded mountains ; the current runs strong through it. See works by Cunningham (1878) and Miller (1884).


Magenta, an Italian town, 18 miles W. of Milan. Pop. 7573. Here, 4th June 1859, the French and Sardinians defeated the Austrians.


Magero. See North Cape.


Magersfontein, on the frontiers of Griqnaland West and the Orange River Colony, where in December 1899 Lord Methuen failed to carry the Boer entrenchments.


Maggiore, Lago (Madjo'ray), one of the largest lakes in Italy, is partly in the Swiss canton of Ticino. It is 39 miles long, and 1/2 mile to 5 1/2 miles broad, lies 646 feet above sea-level, and has a maximum depth of 1250 feet. The river Ticino flows through it. In a south-western expansion of the lake are the Borromean Isles (q.v.).


Maghera (Mah'era), a market-town of Londonderry, 44 miles NW. of Belfast. Pop. 879.


Magne'sia, an ancient city of Ionia in Asia Minor, nearly 10 miles NE. of Miletus, in the valley of the MAeander. Here stood a famous temple of Artemis; and here Themistocles died (449 B.C.). It was called Magnesia ad MAeandrum, to distinguish it from Magnesia ad Sipylum, which stood on the Hermus, near Mount Sipylus ; this is the modern Manissa (pop. 50,000), 41 miles NE. of Smyrna by rail.

Magus Muir

Magus Muir, a place in Fife, 3 1/2 miles WSW. of St Andrews, the scene in 1679 of Archbishop Sharpe's murder.


Mahabaleshwar, the chief sanatorium of Bombay Presidency, on the eastern slope of the Western Ghats, at a height of 4717 feet, and 74 miles S. of Poona ; pop. 3500.


Mahanadi (' the great river'), a river of India, rises in the Central Provinces. After an eastward course of 520 miles, 300 of which are navigable, having divided into several branches near Cuttack, which forms the head of its delta, it falls by several mouths into the Bay of Bengal.