Mantua (Ital. Man'tova), a strongly fortified city of northern Italy, formerly capital of a duchy, 38 miles by rail N. of Modena and 25 S. by W. of Verona. It occupies two islands formed by the Mincio, and, standing in the midst of a marshy district, is one of the four fortresses of the Quadrilateral. Chief amongst the buildings are the ducal palace, dating from 1302 ; the Palazzo Te, outside the city Avails on the south, the greatest monument to the skill of Giulio Romano as architect, painter, and sculptor; the cathedral of San Pietro; and the church of San Andrea, one of the finest Renaissance churches in Italy, containing the tomb of Mantegna. There are an academy of arts and sciences, a library with 80,000 vols, and 1000 MSS., a museum of antiquities, an observatory, etc. Virgil was born at Pietole (anc. Andes), now a suburb of Mantua. The industries include weaving, tanning, and saltpetre-refining. Mantua, an Etruscan town, was successively held by Romans, Ostrogoths, and Lombards, and from 1328 till 1708 was governed by the Gonzaga family. The last duke dying childless, his duchy was confiscated by Austria, who retained it till 1866. Pop. 30,000 (soma 4000 Jews).