Mathura. See Muttra.


Matlock, a Derbyshire parish, 17 miles N. by W. of Derby, containing Matlock Bath, Matlock Bridge, Matlock town, and Matlock Bank, which extend 2 miles along the romantic valley of the Derwent. Matlock Bath has hot springs of 68° F., charged with carbonic acid. At Matlock Bank are several hydropathics, one dating from 1851. Pop. (1901) of Matlock urban district, 5979.

Matoppo Hills

Matoppo Hills, the mountainous region in which the Matabele tableland (itself reaching 4500 feet above the sea) culminates, the watershed between the Limpopo and the Zambesi. Bulawayo (q.v.) is on their slopes ; and amongst them Cecil Rhodes was buried.


Mat'sumai, or Fukuyama, a Japanese port in Yesso, now superseded by Hakodate (q.v.). In feudal days it was the seat of ' the lords of Mat-sumai.' Pop. 15,000.


Matsuyama, a Japanese town of 40,000 inhabitants, 5 miles from its port of Mitsu, on the west coast of Shikoku.


Matterhorn (French Mont Cervin; Italian Monte Silvio), a peak (14,705 feet) of the Alps between the Swiss canton of Valais and Piedmont. It was first scaled by Lord Francis Douglas, the Rev. C. Hudson, Hadow, and Whymper, with three guides, on 14th July 1865, when the three first named and one of the guides fell over a precipice and were killed. See Whymper, Ascent of the Matterhorn (1880).

Matto Grosso

Matto Grosso ('dense forest'), an inland state of Brazil, bordering on Bolivia. Area, 532,550 sq. m. (next in size to Amazonas); pop. 95,000. The capital is Cuyaba (q.v.).


Mattoon, a town of Illinois, 172 miles by rail S. by W. of Chicago. Pop. 9833.


Maturin, a town of Venezuela, 25 miles above its port, Colorado, by rail. Pop. 10,351.


Maubeuge (Mo-buzh'), a fortified town in the French dep. of Nord, 4 miles from the Belgian frontier and 23 ESB. of Valenciennes. Pop. (1SS1)5360; (1901)19,370.

Mauch Chunk

Mauch Chunk (Mawk Chunk), a mining-town of Pennsylvania, capital of Carbon county, among picturesque hills on the Lehigh River, 90 miles NNW. of Philadelphia. There is a switchback railway, 9 miles long, to Summit Hill - a place famous for its ' burning mines,' which have been on fire since 1858. Pop. 4100.


Mauchline, a town of Ayrshire, 12 miles ENB. of Ayr. It has long been noted for its wooden snuff-boxes and similar nicknacks. There is a monument (1830) to five martyred Covenanters ; and 1 mile N. is Mossgiel, Burns's farm from 1784 till 1788, whilst in the village itself are ' Poosie Nancy's,' the scene of his Jolly Beggars, and Mauchline kirk, whose predecessor was the scene of his Holy Fair. Pop. 1754. See works by W. Jolly (1881) and the Rev. Dr Edgar (1886).


Maulmain, or Moulmein, a town in Tenas-serim province, Burma, near the Salween's mouth. It is backed by a fine range of hills, on whose heights flash the gilded spires of innumerable pagodas. Pop. (1856) 43,683 ; (1901) 58,450. The exports include teak-wood and rice ; the imports piece-goods, hardware, and provisions.