Monmouthshire, a county in the west of England, bounded by Hereford, Gloucester, the estuary of the Severn, and South Wales. With a maximum length and breadth of 32 and 28 miles, it contains 578 sq. m., or 370,350 acres, of which more than one half is under permanent pasture, and about one-twelfth in woods. Pop. (1801) 45,582 ; (1841) 134,368 ; (1001) 292,317. Its surface is for the most part hilly, especially in the north and north-west (the Sugar Loaf is 1954 feet high), but the Caldicotand Wentloog Levels, which for a distance of 25 miles skirt the southern coast, are so low as to require in places the protection of sea-walls and earthworks. The Wye, with its tributary the Monnow, the Usk, Bbwy, and Rumney, all flowing south into the estuary of the Severn, are the principal rivers. There are extensive orchards. The great wealth of Monmouthshire is derived from its minerals, coal and ironstone abounding in the region of Ponty-pool and Rhymney. The county comprises six hundreds, the municipal boroughs of Monmouth and Newport, and 147 civil parishes. Three members are returned to parliament for the county, and one for the combined borough of Monmouth, Newport, and Usk. Towns other than the above are Abergavenny, Blaenavon, Caerleon, Chepstow, and Tredegar. Monmouthshire, which until 1535 formed part of Wales, and which was treated as such in the Welsh Disestablishment Bill of 1894, is noted for its beautiful scenery and for the many remains of feudal castles, etc. scattered throughout it. Of these the finest examples are the castles of Raglan, Caldicot, and Chepstow, and the abbeys of Llanthony and Tintern. See the county histories by Williams (1796) and Coxe (1801).