Montauban (Mongtobong), the capital of the French dep. of Tarn-et-Garonne, on the river Tarn, 31 miles N. of Toulouse. A well-built, handsome place, it has a modernised brick bridge (1335), 224 yards long ; a fine cathedral (1739) in the Italian style; and a monument (1871) to Ingres, the painter, a native. It has woollen manufactures, and trades in wine, grain, leather, etc. Montauban was founded in 1144, became the seat of a bishop in 1317, embraced the Reformation in 1560, and acquired historical celebrity as the stronghold of the Huguenots, vainly besieged for three months in 1621. Nearly half the inhabitants still are Protestants, and it has a Protestant college. Pop. (1872) 18,855; (1901) 24,979.

Montbeliard(Mongbayl-yar'; Ger. Mompelgard), a town in the French dep. of Doubs, 48 miles NE. of Besancon. It lies in a valley between the Vosges and Jura Mountains, is surmounted by an old chateau (now a prison), and manufactures watch-springs, watchmaking tools, and cotton. A possession of the House of Wurtem-berg from 1397, it was a Protestant centre from 1525, was formally ceded to France in 1801, and suffered much in the Franco-German war. Cuvier was a native; there is a statue of him, as also of Denfert, the defender of Belfort. Pop. (1872) 5865 ; (1901) 9154, mostly Lutherans.