Montene'gro (Italian translation of the native Czrnagora, ' Black Mountain'), an independent state in the Balkan Peninsula, between Herzegovina and Albania, about 80 miles long by 70 broad. Its area was extended in 1878 by the addition of a large district on the north, a narrow strip on its east side, and the port of Antivari on the Adriatic, and again in 1880 by the addition of the port of Dulcigno. The area, thus extended, is 3255 sq. m., considerably less than half the size of Wales. Beyond the low coastal fringe, which has a climate like that of the south of France, comes a rugged mountain-region ranging up to 6500-8000 feet, not in a series of chains, but in a confusing maze of peaks and gigantic crags and blocks, wild gorges and natural caves, the bare gray crystalline rock being everywhere visible. The streams in some cases have underground channels. The centre of the country is occupied by the branching valleys of the rivers Zeta and Moratcha, which flow south into Lake Scutari. East and north of them the mountains are well wooded, principally with beech and pine, and afford good pasturage to sheep, goats, and cattle. The exports consist chiefly of cattle, goats, hides, smoked fish and mutton, cheese, sumach, fruits, and wine; the imports, of wheat, gunpowder, hardware, groceries, cloth, and glass. The Montenegrins, a race of primitive mountaineers, are a brave, warlike, and simple people, noted for their honesty and their chastity. They live in small stone houses, in small villages. They belong to the Servian branch of the Slavs, number (1900) 228,000, and belong, except about 10,000 Mohammedans and 4000 Roman Catholics, to the Greek Orthodox Church. In the 14th century the country was tributary to Servia; but maintained its independence when Servia was subjugated by the Turks (1389). From that time down to 1880 the Montenegrins waged almost incessant war with the Turks. From 1516 till 1851 the little state was governed by ecclesiastical princes, but the civil was then separated from the ecclesiastical functions, and the throne was declared hereditary. The prince is an absolute sovereign; but he is assisted by a state council and a ministry. During the last quarter of the 19th century the little land has progressed greatly in civilisation; education has made rapid strides, the men have taken to cultivating their fields, and roads have been constructed; while the old militia has been converted into a standing army of 30,000 men, though not more than 100 serve permanently, as a bodyguard to the prince. The village of Cetinje is the capital. See works by Denton (1877), Carr (1884), Brown (1888), Wyon and Prance (1903).