Mos'cow, formerly the capital of Russia, and still venerated as such by the Russian peasantry, stands on the little river Moskwa, a sub-tributary of the Volga, 403 miles by rail SE. of St Petersburg, 768 ENE. of Warsaw, and 967 NNE. of Odessa. Its centre is the enclosure called the Kreml or Kremlin ('Citadel'), which is surrounded by walls, crowned by eighteen towers and pierced by five gates. This enclosure is the most sacred spot in all the vast Russian empire. The most notable of the religious buildings inside the Kremlin are the cathedral of the Assumption (1326; rebuilt 1475-79); its interior is encrusted with mosaics and jewelled ornaments, adorned with venerated pictures, and sanctified by numerous relics; within its walls the early czars and all the Russian metropolitans and patriarchs have been consecrated, and the metropolitans buried. In the cathedral of the Archangel (1333 ; restored 1505) were buried the Russian czars down to the brother of Peter the Great. The cathedral of the Annunciation (1489; rebuilt 1554) was formerly the private chapel of the czars. There are numerous churches of minor rank, and several monasteries ; in the Voznesenski monastery (1393) the czarinas are buried. In 1600 Boris Godunoff built in the Kremlin the Ivan Veliki tower, 270 feet high, the summit of which commands a magnificent view of Moscow, with her gilded cupolas and fantastic towers, her half Asiatic, half European architecture. Close by, at its foot, stands the gigantic 'king of bells,' 19 feet high, and 198 tons in weight; it was cast in 1658, but cracked, so never hong. Here are .also the imperial palace (1849); the palace built in the reign of Ivan III.; the new palace Orushonaya, which serves as a museum of Russian antiquities ; the palace of the patriarchs, with archaeological treasures and rare MSS. ; the arsenal (1701-30), before which is the trophy of 1812, a pile of 850 French cannon ; and the Hall of the Synod, with a valuable library. Outside the Kreml the chief objects of interest are the colossal ' Temple of the Saviour' (1838-81), a building commemorative of 1812 ; the cathedral of St Basil (1554), a ' nightmare in stone,' with fantastic towers; the gigantic bazaar; the historical museum; the library of the synod and its typographical museum; the university (1755), with 3350 students; the public museum (1861), containing a library of 300,000 vols, and 5000 MSS. ; a first-rate ethnological museum; the Golitzyn Museum (1865), etc. ; an observatory; and a large foundling hospital (1764).

Next to St Petersburg, Moscow is the busiest industrial city in the empire, manufacturing cotton and woollen goods, silks, leather, tobacco, candles, metallic articles, machinery, paper, chemicals, bricks, carriages, pottery, and watches. Situated nearly in the centre of European Russia, midway between the Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Caspian, it is a chief meeting-place of Asiatic and European commerce. An enormous trade is done in grain, timber, furs, hides, tallow, and cattle; in the mineral products of the Ural region; in tea, sugar, and other groceries; in cottons, silks, and woollens, and various Russian manufactures. Pop.(18(34)805,000; (1005)1,100,000.

Finnish first, it became Great Russian in the 12th century. In 1325 the metropolitan of central Russia moved his seat here; the Kremlin was built in 1300. The principality of Moscow continued to grow in area and in political influence, and Ivan III. (1462-1505) assumed the title Czar of all Russia. In 1713 Peter the Great founded St Petersburg and made it his capital; Moscow suffered greatly from tires in 1739, 1748, and 1753 ; and the cup of misfortune was filled to the brim when the city was set on fire and burned in 1812, according to the traditional belief the patriotic act of its own inhabitants to save it from Napoleon and the French. - The government of Moscow has an area of 12,855 sq. m., and a pop. of about 2,500,000.