Nanking, capital of the province of Kiangsu, formerly the capital of China, on the Yangtsze River, 130 miles from its mouth. Its name signifies the Southern Capital. Since the removal of the seat of government to Peking (Northern Capital) in the 15th century, the official name has been Kiangning. From 1853 to 1864 it was the capital of the Taiping rebels, who destroyed nearly all the magnificent public buildings for which the city was once famous. Till then the walls, 50 to 70 feet high, enclosed an area nearly 20 miles in circumference. The most memorable of the ruined buildings were the Porcelain Tower (1430), the summer palace, and the tombs of the kings, with remarkable sepulchral statues. Since its recapture by the Chinese imperialists, Nanking shows few signs of recovery. Although the manufacture of 'nankeen' (hence named), and of satin, has been revived, its once famous pottery, artificial flowers, and paper now are hardly produced. The government has established an arsenal on the European model. In 1842 Nanking was captured by the British. Pop. 150,000.