Naumburg (Nowm'boorg), a quaint old town of Prussian Saxony, on the Saale, in an amphitheatre of vine-clad hills, 30 miles by rail SW. of Leipzig. Of its six churches, the triple-towered cathedral (1207-42) is a noble Romanesque and Gothic structure. The manufactures include ivory carvings, combs, hosiery, wine, etc. The yearly 'cherry feast' commemorates the raising of the siege of Naumburg by the Hussite leader Procop in response to the supplication of the children (28th July 1432); but recent historians cast doubt on the whole episode. The seat of a bishopric (1059-1564), Naumburg suffered much in the Thirty Years' War ; in 1814 it came to Prussia. Pop. 28,200.
Nauvoo' (from a Heb. word for 'beautiful'), a village of Illinois, on the east bank of the Mississippi River, 14 miles above Keokuk. It was built by the Mormons in 1840, and soon contained a pop. of 15,000. Its principal feature was a great temple of white limestone (1841-45); but it had also mills and factories, and the beginnings of a university. After the expulsion of the Mormons in 1846, the temple was half destroyed by fire in 1848, and further ruined by a tornado in 1850. The town was occupied by a French Socialist community. Pop. 1350.
Navarino (Navaree'no; officially Pylos), on a bay on the south-west coast of the Morea in Greece, contains only 1462 inhabitants, but has an excellent deep harbour. The Bay of Navarino was the scene of a great sea-victory of the Athenians over the Spartans (425 B.C.) ; and on the 20th October 1827 it saw the annihilation of the Turkish and Egyptian navies by the British, French, and Russian fleets.
Navarre (Basque Nava, 'a mountain plain,' and erri, 'country'), one of the kingdoms which arose in the Pyrenees after the downfall of the Goths, but since 1512 divided into Spanish Navarra, and French or Basse-Navarre (now Basses Pyrenees). Spanish Navarra, by far the greater division, has an area of 6046 sq. m.; pop. 304,151, speaking Basque in the north.
Navigators' Islands. See Samoa.
Naworth Castle. See Lanercost.
Naxos, the largest and most fertile of the Cyclades, is situated in the Aegean, midway between Greece and Asia Minor. It is 20 miles in length, and has a pop. of 25,880. The shores are steep, and the island is traversed by a ridge of mountains, which culminate in Dia (3289 feet). The wine of Naxos was famous in ancient as it is in modern times, hence the island was celebrated in the legends of Dionysus and Ariadne. It was Turkish from 1566 till Greece became a kingdom. Naxos, the capital (pop. 2000), is the seat of a Greek bishop and a Latin archbishop.