Nebraska, a central state of the American Union, the eleventh in area, lies between South Dakota, Iowa (separated by the Missouri River), Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming. Area, 76,855 sq. m. The surface is chiefly an elevated, undulating prairie; it is very level in the eastern and southern portions, but in the north and west the 'Bad Lands' extend into the state, while north of the Niobrarah River there are great sandhills. The average elevation of the state rises from about 1200 feet in the east to 6000 feet towards the western border. The principal rivers, the Platte, Niobrarah, and Republican, all flow east. The atmosphere is dry and invigorating ; great extremes of heat and cold are sometimes experienced. Wolves, foxes, skunks, rabbits, etc. abound. The soil is mostly a rich black mould, 2 to 8 feet deep. The staple crop is maize. Tobacco and sugar-beet also are cultivated. The manufactures include agricultural implements, canned provisions, vitrified brick, woollen clothing, soap, and beet-sugar. Pop. (1860) 28,841; (1880) 452,402 ; (1900) 1,066,800. The principal cities are Omaha, Lincoln (the capital), Beatrice, Hastings, and Nebraska City. Nebraska, included in the Louisiana Purchase, was organised in 1854, with an area of 351,558 sq. m. But of this vast area great portions were afterwards carved out for Colorado, Dakota, and Idaho. Nebraska became a state in 1867.