Nepal (Ne-pawl'), a native kingdom of India, on the southern slope of the Himalayas, between Tibet and Bengal. It is 512 miles in length, by 70 to 150 in breadth. Area, 54,000 sq. m. ; pop. estimated by native authorities at 5,500,000, more probably 2,500,000. The northern parts of the state embrace the main range of the Himalayas, with Everest, Dhawalagiri, etc. On the south of the state lies the Terai. The intervening territory consists of mountain-ridges, embracing valleys drained by the Kurnali, Gandak, Kosi, etc. The climate varies greatly according to altitude; the principal valley, in which stands the capital Khatmandu (q.v.), has a climate like that of southern Europe. The soil is very fertile. The hillsides are terraced and the land is irrigated. Copper, iron, sulphur, etc, are little worked. The forests contain valuable timber trees. The valleys are inhabited by numerous different hill-tribes, partly aboriginal, partly of Mongolian or Chinese descent; but the dominant race are the Goorkhas, whose ancestors came from Rajputana in the 12th century, though it was not .until 17(39 that they made themselves masters of Nepal. In 1815 Sir David Ochterlony defeated the Goorkha armies in the west; and in 1816 a British force, 33,000 strong, within three days' march of Khatmandu, compelled the Goorkhas to sign a treaty of peace: they have since been helpful, especially during the mutiny.