Neuchatel, or Neufchatel (Nuh-sha-tel'; Ger. Neuenburg), a canton in the west of Switzerland; between Lake Neuchatel and the French frontier. Most of its streams flow into the Rhine ; several are feeders of the Lake of Neuchatel, which, lying 1420 feet above sea-level, and 472 feet deep, is 25 miles long by from 3 to 6 wide. The Thiele carries its waters into the lake of Bienne, and thence into the river Aar. Pop. (1870) 97,284 ; (1900) 126,279, of whom three-fourths speak French, and four-fifths are Protestants. The speciality of the canton is watch-making, which occupies 20,000 persons, mainly in their own homes. Neuchatel was associated with Prussia from 1707 till 1806, when Napoleon bestowed it upon General Berthier; in 1814 it was restored to the House of Brandenburg. A republican constitution was adopted in 1848 ; and there was civil war in 1856. The connection with Prussia was dissolved in 1857, and Neuchatel became a member of the Swiss Confederation.
Neuchatel, chief town of the canton, occupies a magnificent site on the north-west shore of the Lake of Neuchatel, 85 miles by rail NNE. of Geneva. It is noted for its many charitable, educational, and artistic institutions, and has a chateau (restored 1866), a college (1828), a statue of Farel (1875), etc. It manufactures watches, jewellery, etc. Pop. (1870) 13,321 ; (1904) 22,012. - The famous Neufchatel cream-cheeses are made at Neufchatel-en-Bray, a small Norman town, 25 miles SE. of Dieppe by rail.