New Hampshire, the 'Granite State,' the most northerly of the thirteen original United States of North America, lies between the province of Quebec, Maine and (for 18 miles) the Atlantic Ocean, Massachusetts, and the right bank of the Connecticut River. Area, 9305 sq. m.-a fourth larger than Wales. The average elevation of the state is about 1200 feet, the highest point being Mount Washington (6293 feet), in the White Mountains; among the other peaks over 5000 feet high are those bearing the names of the successive presidents, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe. The largest lake is Winnipiseogee (72 sq. m.) ; the principal rivers are the Connecticut, Merrimac, and Piscataqua. From Dover Point to its mouth the Piscataqua is about half a mile wide ; and the volume and swiftness of its current at ebb-tide prevent the freezing of the water in Portsmouth harbour during the coldest winters. The Merrimac is said to turn more spindles and propel more shuttles than any other river in the world. The mean annual temperature at Concord is 46o F. There are still over a million acres of forest in the state. Of late New Hampshire has become very popular as a summer-resort, and the farmers, who owing to the rough and sterile soil could not compete in the great markets with those of the West, now find a new and important market brought to their very doors. But manufacturing is the leading industry in New Hampshire, the chief centres being Manchester (the largest city), Nashua, and Dover. Dartmouth college was founded in 1769. The earliest settlements were made in 1623 near Dover and Portsmouth. In 1641-79, 1689-92, and 1699-1741 New Hampshire was joined to the Massachusetts colony, but during the intervening dates and until 1775 it was under royal governors of its own. A provisional government was formed in 1776, a state constitution adopted in 1784; and New Hampshire was the ninth state (1788) to ratify the national constitution. Among the eminent men born here have been President Pierce, Daniel Webster, Lewis Cass, Salmon P. Chase, and Horace Greeley. Pop. (1840) 284,574 ; (1880) 346,991 ; (1900) 411,588.