New Haven, the chief city and seaport of Connecticut, and capital of New Haven county, at the head of New Haven Bay, 4 miles from Long Island Sound, and 73 miles by rail ENE. of New York. Its broad streets are shaded with elms, and the public squares, parks, and gardens, with its handsome public and private edifices, make it one of the most beautiful of American cities. It has since 1718 been the seat of Yale College, founded in 1701 at Saybrook, and having over 325 professors and lecturers, 3000 students, and libraries of 380,000 volumes. New Haven also contains the Sheffield scientific school, and the Hopkins grammar-school (1660). The harbour has a jetty and a breakwater surmounted by a lighthouse, and the port has a large coasting trade. But New Haven is of more consequence as a manufacturing town, employing many thousands of hands in its large works, and producing hardware, wire, locks, clocks, cutlery, firearms, corsets, india-rubber goods, carriages, furniture, paper, matches, musical instruments, etc. New Haven was settled in 1638 by a company from London, and the colony was not united to that of Connecticut until 1662; and till 1873 it was recognised as, jointly with Hartford, the capital of the state. It was incorporated as a town about 1665, and chartered as a city in 1784. Pop. (1850) 22,529 ; (1880) 62,882 ; (1900) 108,027.