New Jersey, one of the thirteen original states of the American Union, is bounded by New York, the Hudson River, Staten Island Sound, Raritan Bay, the Atlantic, Delaware Bay, and the Delaware River. Its greatest length is 167 miles; its width from 32 to 59 miles ; and its area 7577 sq. m.; it being the smallest of all the states save three, but ranking eighteenth in population. In the north-west are two portions of the Appalachian system. The Blue or Kittatinny Mountains (1400-1800 feet) extend along the Delaware from the Water Gap. The Navesink highlands, south of Sandy Hook, reach a height of 282 feet, and support two lighthouses. The central portion of the state is generally level and fertile ; the southern part is in large measure sandy, covered with pine-woods, and marshy near the coast. The state is abundantly watered ; its chief rivers, the Passaic, Raritan, Little and Great Egg Harbor, flow south-east into bays. The coast from Sandy Hook to Cape May is generally protected by peninsular or island beaches. About 60 per cent. of the total land area is included in farms. The chief products - mainly agricultural - are maize, oats, wheat, rye, hay, potatoes and sweet potatoes, cattle, butter, and milk. The leading mineral products are iron ore, limestone, zinc, and slate. Glass, pottery, machinery, leather, silk, and sugar are the chief manufactures. New Jersey has two canals, and some fifty railroads, with 3000 miles of length. Its south-west portion has Philadelphia for a market; its north-east section, including its two largest towns, is a suburb of New York. Its coast from Navesink to Squan is covered with villas, cottages, and hotels. Cape May, Long Branch, and Atlantic City are noted seaside resorts. Asbury Park, Ocean Grove, Seabright, etc. are growing places, crowded in summer. Newark and Jersey City are by far the largest cities ; next come Paterson, Camden, Hoboken, Trenton, Elizabeth, New Brunswick, and Orange. Pop. (1800) 211,149; (1840) 373,306; (1880) 1,131,116; (1900) 1,8S3,669. In 1617 the Dutch settled at Bergen, near New York; in 1623 Cornelius May ascended the Delaware, and built a fort four miles below the site of Camden. In 1664 the territory was granted by Charles II. to the Duke of York. See the History by Raum (1880).