Nice (Neece; Ital. Nizza), chief town of the French dep. of Alpes Maritimes, stands on a beautiful well-sheltered site on the coast, 140 miles E. by N. of Marseilles and 110 SW. of Genoa. On the north of the city the hills rise in terraces and shield it from the cold winds; on the south it faces the sea, which tempers the heat in summer. Owing to the advantages of its situation, Nice has for many years been celebrated as a winter-resort for invalids, the number of visitors ranging between 15,000 and 45,000. The mean temperature of winter is 49° F., of summer 72°. Pop. (1872) 42,363 ; (1901) 98,865. The New Town on the west is the part frequented by foreigners, particularly English (whence its name of ' English town'). Beautiful promenades stretch along the seashore, and are overlooked by villas and hotels. Numerous bridges across the little river Paglione (Paillon) connect the New Town with the Old or Upper Town. This part, with narrow streets, clusters at the foot of a rocky height, the Castle Hill; on the other (east) side of this hill is the harbour, which was enlarged to twice its original size in 1889, and deepened to 25 feet. The Castle Hill is an isolated mass of limestone 318 feet high, crowned by a ruined castle, and laid out in public gardens. The chief public buildings are the cathedral, the Gothic church of Notre Dame, the natural history museum, art gallery, library, observatory, casino, etc. The people manufacture artistic pottery, perfumery, and macaroni, grow flowers and southern fruits, the last of which they preserve, and produce inlaid work in olive-wood. The chief export is olive-oil. The ancient Ligurian town of NicAea, founded by a colony of PhocAeans from Massalia (Marseilles), became subject to Rome in the 2d century b.c. It was in the hands of the Saracens in the 10th century. In 1543 it was pillaged by the Turks. From 1600 onwards it was repeatedly taken by the French ; they held it from 1792 to 1814 ; and in 1860 it was ceded to France by Sardinia (Savoy). Mas-sena was born near the city, and Garibaldi in it.