Nicosia, (1) called also Levkosia, the capital of Cyprus, situated near the middle of the northern half of the island, has some manufactures of silk, leather, and cotton. Pop. 14,536. - (2) A city of Sicily, 40 miles NW. of Catania. Pop. 15,941.


Nictheroy, a town of Brazil, and till 1894 the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, on the east side of the entrance to the bay, and 5 miles E. of the city of Rio de Janeiro. It has beautiful suburbs. Pop. 25,000.


Nidderdale, the valley of the river Nidd, which rises at the foot of Whernside, in Yorkshire, and flows SE. and E. to the Ouse above York.

Niddry Castle

Niddry Castle, a Linlithgow ruin, 1 mile SSE. of Winchburgh. Queen Mary fled hither from Lochleven.


Niederwald (Nee'dervalt), the western end of the Taunus range, that abuts upon the Rhine opposite Bingen. On a commanding site was erected in 1883 the national memorial of the war of 1870-71 - a pedestal, surmounted by a bronze figure of Germania, 34 1/2 feet high. Toothed-railways carry visitors up from Rudesheim and Ass-mannshausen at the foot, both noted for their wine.


Niemen (Nee'men), a river of W. Russia, whose lower course (70 of its 500 miles) lies within East Prussia, where it is called the Memel, rises S. of Minsk. It is navigable to Grodno; below Tilsit it divides into two branches, which reach the Kurisches Haff each by four mouths.


Nierstein (Neer'stine), a village of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Rhine, 10 miles SSE. of Mainz, famous for its Rhine wine. Pop. 3283.

Nieuwo Diep

Nieuwo Diep, or Willemsoord, a small port of North Holland, 1 mile E. of the Helder (q.v.).

Nieuwveld Mountains

Nieuwveld Mountains. See Cape Colony.


Nievre (Nyehvr; y consonantal), a central dep. of France, occupies a portion of the watershed between the Loire and the Seine. Area, 2632 sq. m. ; pop. (1872) 339,917; (1901) 319,506. Arrondissements, Nevers, Chateau-Chinon, Clamecy, and Cosne; capital, Nevers.


Nigritia. See Soudan.


Niigata (Nee-ee-gah'ta), a seaport of western Japan, at the mouth of the Shinano River, opened to foreign trade in 1859. Pop. 53,500.


Nijni-Novgorod (Nidj'nee Novgorod; 'Lower Novgorod'), a great commercial city of Russia, at the confluence of the Oka with the Volga, 274 miles E. of Moscow. The great fair (July - Sept.) still brings buyers and sellers from all climes between Germany and China. During it the resident pop. (95,124 in 1897) is increased fivefold ; and the value of the goods sold is not much short of 20,000,000. - The government of Nijni-Novgorod has an area of 19,797 sq. m. and a pop. of 1,600,000.


Nijni-Tagilsk (Nidj'nee Tah-gilsk'; g hard), a Russian town amid the Ural Mountains, 150 miles E. of Perm by rail, with great platinum, copper, and iron works. Pop. 30,000.


Nikolaevsk (Ni-ko-lah-evsk), a decayed town of eastern Siberia, 23 miles from the Amur's mouth. Pop. 3500.