Nigeria, since 1900 a British protectorate in West Equatorial Africa, includes all the territories administered till that date by the Royal Niger Company, and the Niger Coast Protectorate. On the east it is bounded by (German) Cameroon north-eastwards to the south-west corner of Lake Tsad ; on the west by the Lagos Protectorate and the (French) hinterland of Dahomey. It includes the whole of the lower basin of the Niger from Ilo downwards, and nearly the whole of its great tributary, the Benue. Its area is from 400,000 to 500,000 square miles, and the population is estimated to be between 30 and 40 millions. The British United African Company (after 1886 the Royal Niger Company) began operations in 1879, and finally acquired rights over nearly the whole region now called Nigeria. In 1899 the government arranged to take over all the powers and rights of the company on 1st January 1900, on payment of 565,000, and certain royalties on minerals for ninety-nine years. For administrative purposes the protectorate is divided into North and South Nigeria by a straight line between Lagos and Cameroon at 7° 15" N., each administered by a High Commissioner. Northern Nigeria is fertile, with greatagricultural resources, and fairly healthy. Cotton, indigo, rubber, hides, ivory, and minerals (silver, tin, and lead) are the chief products. The native Hanssa race is civilised and industrious. The chief towns are Kano, Yola (capital of Adamawa), Wurno (capital of Sokoto), Gando, Bida, lllorin, Yakoba, Sokoto, and Zaria, with a reserved port in South Nigeria at the mouth of the Forcados River. There is a military force of about 3000 Haussas of all arms. Southern Nigeria includes the whole of the Coast Protectorate and part of the Niger Protectorate. The inhabitants are pagan negro tribes, more or less cannibal in habits. Asaba, Benin, and Idda are the chief inland towns ; and on the coast, Wari, Barutu, Akassa, Brass, New Calabar, Bonny, Opoba, and Old Calabar, where the customs for both N. and S. Nigeria are collected. The chief products are palm-oil and kernels, rubber, ivory, indigo, gums, coffee, and hides. There is a native police force of over 7000 men.