North Dakota, a state of the American Union, bounded by Canada(Saskatche\van and Manitoba), Minnesota, South Dakota, and Montana; area, 70,795 sq. m. - a fifth larger than England and Wales ; pop. (1900) 319,146. The surface is largely undulating plain. The Turtle Hills in the north cross the Canadian frontier; and a belt of high plateau, the Coteau du Missouri, crosses the state from the NW., dividing it into two unequal sections, through the SW. of which flows the Missouri River, with its tributaries, including the Little Missouri. Devil's Lake or Minniwaukon, in the NB., has no outlet and is salt. Great part of the NW. overlies beds of lignite. In the NE. are the rich wheat lands of the Red River basin. Some of the great 'Bonanza' farms of North Dakota are from 10 to 80 sq. m. in extent; continuous furrows are sometimes ploughed for miles in a line. Other crops are maize, flax, oats, rye, potatoes, buckwheat, and hay. The cattle interest is great; the ranche system prevails in the less settled districts. The rainfall is relatively low. The winters are cold, but dry and sunny. The first settlement was by French Canadians near Pembina about 1780. Dakota territory, including North and South Dakota, was organised in 1861. The two Dakotas were admitted as separate states in 1889. The capital of North Dakota is Bismarck ; the largest town is Fargo (9600), others being Grand Forks and Jamestown.