Northampton, the capital of Northamptonshire, and a county, parliamentary, and municipal borough, is seated on rising ground on the Nen's left bank, 66 miles NW. by N. of London and 50 SE. of Birmingham. It has a fine town-hall (1861-64), with other municipal offices; a county hall; corn exchange (1850); museum, free library, and schools of science and art (enlarged 1889); large hospitals; a theatre (1884); infantry barracks (1797; rebuilt 1877-78); and thirteen churches, the most interesting of which are St Peter's (Norman), St Sepulchre's (Norman and Decorated, one of the few remaining round churches in England), All-Saints', and St Giles'. The town is the English centre of the boot and shoe manufacture ; leather is dressed, some lace is made, and extensive breweries are in operation. On the outskirts of the town is a hue racecourse, on which meetings are held in April and November. In the autumn of 1892 Ubington Abbey and 20 acres therewith were offered as a free gift to Northampton by Lord Wantage. In the grounds is a mulberry planted by Garrick. Pop. (1801) 7020 ; (1831) 15,351; of the municipal borough, (1901) 76,072, and of the parliamentary borough, Which returns two members, 87,021. Northampton was burnt by the Danes (1010); it had a castle (of which no traces now remain) built about 1075, and a university, founded in 1260, but abolished some few years later. In a battle (10th July 1460) fought in the meadows below the town, Henry VI. was defeated by the Yorkists; a great fire (20th September 1675) almost entirely destroyed the town.
Northampton, capital of Hampshire county, Massachusetts, stands near the west bank of the Connecticut River (here crossed by a bridge to Hadley), 103 miles by rail W. of Boston and 3 miles NW. of Mount Holyoke. It contains the state lunatic asylum, the Clarke Institute for deaf-mutes, a public library, housed in the handsome Memorial Hall, and Smith College for women. The manufactures include paper, silk, cotton and woollen goods, sewing-machines, cutlery, baskets, brushes, jet ornaments, etc. Pop. 20,100.