Noss. See Bressay.
Nossi-Be (Bay), a volcanic island NW. of Madagascar. Area, 115 sq. m. ; pop. 9500.
Notley Abbey, Bucks, 2 miles NNE. of Thame, a ruined Augustinian canonry (1162).
Noumea. See New Caledonia.
Nova Zembla (Russ. Novaja Zemlja, ' New Land'), an Arctic island lying between the Kara Sea and Barents Sea. Long and narrow, it measures 600 miles from north to south and 60 in average width, and is cut in two nearly midway by a narrow winding sea-passage, the Matochkin Shar. The centre and north are mountainous, rising to 4000 feet or higher, and are covered with snow and ice. Although not permanently inhabited, it is visited by Russian and Norwegian Seamen and hunters. It was known to the hunters of Novgorod in the 11th century, but was rediscovered by Willoughby in 1553.
Nov'gorod ('new-town'), a famous city of Russia, is situated on the Volkhof, near where it issues from Lake Ilmen, 110 miles SSE. of St Petersburg by rail. It is the cradle of Russian history. In 864, according to tradition, Rurik (a Varangian, apparently a Scandinavian) was invited hither by the neighbouring tribes, and with him Russian history begins. In the 12th century it had connections with the Hanse cities, and it became the market of north-east Europe. 'Novgorod the Great,' a kind of republic, had 400,000 inhabitants, but in 1471 the czar Ivan III. nearly destroyed the town, and bereft it of its liberties. St Sophia, founded in the 11th century, is built on the model of St Sophia at Constantinople. Pop. 26,599. - The government, lying E. of that of St Petersburg, contains 3000 lakes and for three-fourths is covered with forests. Area, 47,236 sq. m.; pop. 1,390,507.
Novi, a town of Italy, 30 miles NW. of Genoa. Pop. 9917. Here in 1799 the French were defeated (15th August) and victorious (6th November).
Novlbazar' (also Jenipasar and Rascia), a town where Austrian and Turkish authority meet, on the river Rashka, an affluent of the Morava, 120 miles SE. of Saraievo in Bosnia. Pop. 12,000. The sanjak of Novibazar (3842 sq. m.; pop. 153,000) is mountainous and barren, but as lying between Servia and Montenegro is of strategic importance. The W. part is occupied by Austria.