Nuremberg (Ger. Nurnberg), a city in the Bavarian province of Middle Franconia, in a sandy but well-cultivated district, on the little Pegnitz (a sub-affluent of the Main), 95 miles N. by W. of Munich, and 145 ESE. of Frankfort. It is the quaintest and most interesting town of Germany, on account of the wealth of mediaeval architecture which it presents in its many-towered walls, its gateways, its picturesque streets with their gabled house-fronts, its bridges, and its beautiful Gothic fountains. The Burg or royal palace was built (c. 1024-1158) by Conrad II. and Frederick Barbarossa; in its courtyard is a coeval linden-tree. Of eight fine churches the two finest are St Lawrence (1274-1477), with two noble towers 233 feet high, exquisite stained glass, the famous stone tabernacle (1495-1500) by Adam Krafft, and the wood-carvings of Veit Stoss; and St Sebald's (c. 1225-1377), with the superb shrine of Peter Vischer. Other noteworthy objects are the Italian Renaissance town-hall (1622); the new law-courts (1877); the gymnasium, founded by Melanchthon (1526); the Germanic museum (1852); an industrial museum (1871); a library of 200,000 volumes; Albert Durer's house; and the statues of him, Hans Sachs, and Melanchthon, with the 'Victoria' or soldiers' monument (1876). Although the glory of Nuremberg's foreign commerce has long since passed away, the home trade is still of high importance. It includes the specialities of metal, wood, and bone carvings, and children's 'Dutch' toys and dolls, which, known as 'Nuremberg wares,' find a ready sale in every part of Europe, and are largely exported to America and the Bast. In all there are close on 200 factories, producing also chemicals, ultramarine, type, lead-pencils, beer, etc.; and the town besides does a vast export trade in hops, and import trade in colonial wares from the Netherlands. Pop. (1818) 26,854; (1875) 91,018; (1900) 261,081 - the great majority Protestants. First heard of in 1050, Nuremberg was made a free imperial city in 1219. In 1417 the Hohenzollerns sold all their rights to the magistracy. This put an end to the feuds which raged between the burggrafs and the municipality; and Nuremberg for a time became the chief home in Germany of the arts and of inventions - watches or 'Nuremberg eggs,' air-guns, globes, etc. In 1803 it retained its independence, with a territory of 483 sq. m., containing 80,000 inhabitants; but in 1806 it was transferred to Bavaria. See books by Headlam, Ree, and Bell (1905).