Odessa, the fourth city of Russia, on the Black Sea, midway between the estuaries of the Dniester and Dnieper, by rail 967 miles SSW. of Moscow and 381 S. of Kieff. It is built facing the sea on low cliffs, seamed with deep ravines and hollowed out by galleries in the soft rock, in which numbers of the poorest inhabitants herd together. Above ground its streets are long and broad, and cross each other at right angles. Odessa was only founded in 1794, near a Turkish fort that fell into Russian hands in 1789; but it quickly became the port for the corn-growing districts of South Russia. Its progress was greatly aided by its being a free port from 1817 to 1857, and again by the railway to Kieff (1866). The pop. increased from 3150 in 1796 to 25,000 in 1814, 100,000 in 1850, 184,800 in 1873, and 405,000 (very many Jews and some Greeks) in 1905, when there were fleet mutinies, riots, massacres of Jews, and a local civil war. The harbour or roadstead, protected by moles, is blocked by ice about a fortnight in the year. The exports include wheat, sugar, wool, and flour; the imports, raw cotton, oils, groceries, iron and steel, coal, food-stuffs, fruits, tea, tobacco, machinery. The chief industries are flour-milling, sugar and oil refining, the manufacture of tobacco, machinery, leather, soap, chemicals, biscuits, etc. Odessa has a university (1865) with 600 students, a public library (1829) of over 40,000 vols., the cathedral (1802-49) of the Archbishop of Kherson, a very fine opera-house (1887), palatial grain-warehouses, corn-elevators, and the 'palais royal,' with its gardens and park. Monuments to Count Worontsoff (1863), the Duke de Richelieu (1827) - both great benefactors of Odessa - and Pushkin (1889) adorn the city. Water is brought by aqueduct (27 miles long) from the Dniester. Numerous coast batteries have been built.