Openshaw, a SE. suburb of Manchester.
Oppeln, a town of Prussian Silesia, on the Oder, 51 miles SE. of Breslau. Its church of St Adalbert was founded in 995; and there is an old castle on an island in the river. The manufactures include pottery, cigars, cement, beer, leather, etc. Pop. 30,120.
Oran (Ordn'; Arab. Waran), a seaport of Algeria, on the Gulf of Oran, 261 miles by rail W. by S. of Algiers and 130 by sea S. of Cartagena in Spain. It climbs up the foot of a hill, has a thoroughly French appearance, and possesses a Roman Catholic cathedral (1839), a grand mosque, a college, a seminary, and two citadels or castles. The harbour is protected by moles constructed in 1887 at a cost of £280,000; alfa, iron ore, and cereals are exported. The population is about 90,000. Oran was built by the Moors. In the 15th century it was a prosperous commercial town, but was taken by the Spaniards in 1509 and made a penal settlement. Taken and retaken by Turks and Spaniards, it was finally annexed by the French in 1831. - The province has an area of 33,236 sq. m.; pop. 1,150,000.
Orchom'enos, an ancient city of Bœ;otia, capital of the kingdom of the MinyAe, was situated at the NW. corner of Lake Copais, where it was joined by the Cephissus. In 1880 Schliemann excavated an old 'treasury.' - A second Orchom-enos, in Arcadia, lay NNW. of Mantinea.
Oregon River. See Columbia.
Orel', a town of Russia, on the Oka, 222 miles by rail SSW. of Moscow, manufactures ropes, tallow, bricks, machinery, and verdigris. It was burned down in 1848 and 1858. Population, 70,000. - Area of the government, 18,036 sq. m.; pop. 2,075,000.
Orenburg (O'ren-boorg), a town of Russia, on the river Ural, by rail 727 miles ESE. of Moscow. Pop. 72,740. - The government has an area of 73,794 sq. m. and a pop. of 1,610,000.
Oren'se, capital of a Galician province of Spain (area, 2739 sq. m.; pop. 405,074), near the Portuguese frontier, on the Minho's left bank, 60 miles from its mouth. Pop. 15,440.
Orford, a Suffolk fishing-town on the Ore, 5 miles SSW. of Aldeburgh. It has a Norman keep, till 1832 returned two members, and was a municipal borough till 1887. Pop. of parish, 987. On the promontory of Orford Ness, 2 1/2 miles ESE., are two lighthouses.
Orihuela (Oreehooay'la), a town in the Spanish province of Alicante, on the Segura, 38 miles N. of Cartagena. It has a cathedral and college, and manufactures silk, linen, hats, etc. Pop. 21,125.
Orissa, an ancient kingdom of India, extended from Bengal on the N. to the Godavari on the S. The present province is the extreme southwest portion of Bengal. Orissa was long a Buddhist stronghold; in 474 a new dynasty made it Brahmanical, and introduced the worship of Siva. Orissa ceased to be an independent state in 1568, being conquered for the Great Mogul. Its next masters were the Mahrattas, who seized it in 1742; but they were forced to surrender it to the English in 1803. The British commissioner-ship has an area of 9853 sq. m. and a population of 4,350,500; the tributary states, a hilly country with dense jungle, lying between the low coast districts and the interior plateau, have an area of 14,387 sq. m. and a pop. of 1,996,710. All this region was visited by severe famine in 1868-69. The principal river is the Mahanadi, and the chief towns Cuttack, Balasor, and Pari. The irrigation of a large portion of Orissa is provided for by a costly system of canals.