Oporto (Port. 0 porto, ' the port'), the second city of Portugal, stands high on the steep, rocky, right bank of the Douro, which reaches the sea 3 miles W. One of the crags overlooking the river is crowned with a Crystal Palace (1865). Many of the former monasteries are put to other uses: one is a citadel, another the exchange, a third barracks. There are seven principal churches, including the cathedral (built by Henry the Navigator), the old Gothic church of Cedo-feita (originally founded in 559), and the Church dos Clerigos, with a tower 213 feet high. The English factory (1785), the bishop's palace, and the hospital of St Antony are noticeable secular buildings. Oporto possesses a polytechnic academy, a medical school, art academy, commercial museum, library (1796) of 200,000 vols. and 9400 MSS., and two picture-galleries. On the south side of the river, connected with Oporto by a lofty bridge, is the suburb of Villa Nova de Gaia, with a pop. of 9126, and extensive wine-cellars. The railway to Lisbon (209 miles) crosses the river a little higher up, on a fine steel bridge; the arch spans 549 feet, and its centre is 203 feet above the river. The pop. of Oporto is about 175,000. They are chiefly engaged in the manufacture of cloth and silks, hats, porcelain, ribbons, tobacco, soap, and candles, in metal-casting, tanning, brewing, distilling, cork-cutting, sugar-refining, and brick-making, and in commerce and shipping. Oporto is the principal place of export for port wine; other exports are cattle, oranges and other fruits, cork, copper; onions, meat, hides, and wool. The imports consist chiefly of corn and flour, cod-fish, metals, machinery, textiles, rice, raw sugar, hides, coal, and timber. Originally the Portus Cale of the Romans (whence 'Portugal'), this city was long a stronghold of the Christians against the Moors. In 1808 the inhabitants were especially hostile to the French; and they stoutly opposed the usurper Miguel (1828).