Oru'ro, capital of the Bolivian dep. of Oruro, and sometimes of the republic, stands 11,960 feet above the sea, near the salt lake of Aullagas, and possesses mines of silver, gold, and tin. Founded in 1590, it had 70,000 inhabitants in the 17th century, but now has 15,500.
Orvieto (Or-vee-eh'to), a city in the Italian province of Perugia, 78 miles NNW. of Rome, crowns an isolated tufa rock, which rises 765 feet above the river Paglia, and 1327 above sea-level. The cruciform cathedral (1290-1580), one of the most beautiful specimens of Italian Gothic, is built of black and white marble, and measures 295 feet by 109. The facade is unsurpassed for its mosaics, sculptures, and elaborate ornamentation. The interior also is magnificently decorated with sculptures and with paintings by Luca Signorelli, Fra Angelico, etc. The bishop's palace and St Patrick's Well (1527; disused), with its 250 steps, are also noteworthy. Pop. 18,500. Orvieto, called in the 7th c. a.d. Urbs Vetus - whence its present name - has by some been supposed to occupy the site of the Etruscan Volsinii. In the middle ages it gave shelter to thirty-two popes in times of trouble.
Orwell. See Ipswich.
Osa'ka, or Ozaka, an important city of central Japan, situated at the head of the gulf of the same name, and at the mouth of the Yodo River, which issues from Lake Biwa. Its fine castle, the stones of whose walls are of astonishing size, was constructed in 1583, and the palace, built in its precincts and destroyed in 1868, was perhaps the most magnificent structure in Japan. Intersected with canals, Osaka is the commercial centre of the empire, and the headquarters of the rice and tea trade. Pop. 821,250.
Osborne House. See Cowes.
Oshkosh, capital of Winnebago county, Wisconsin, on the Fox River, at its entrance to Lake Winnebago, 80 miles by rail NNW. of Milwaukee. The lake (30 miles by 12) forms, with the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, which are connected by a canal, a water-route between Lakes Michigan and Superior. The city extends along the lake for 4 miles, and carries on a great trade in lumber. It has also extensive door and sash factories, and large manufactories of furniture, matches, carriages, and soap, besides pork-packing establishments. It is the seat of a state normal school, and close by is a state lunatic asylum. Oshkosh was incorporated in 1853, and burned down in 1859; it was again partially destroyed by fire in 1874 and 1875, and in 1885 a cyclone overwhelmed part of the suburbs. Pop. (1880) 15,748; (1900) 28,284.