Pad'ua (Ital. Pad'ova), a city of north Italy, 23 miles by rail W. by S. of Venice and 18 SE. of Vicenza, is still surrounded with walls. The municipal palace (1172-1219) is a huge structure resting on arches, with balconies running round the upper story. The roof (1420) of its great hall (267 1/2 feet long, by 89 wide, and 78 high) is perhaps (with the exception of King's Chapel, Cambridge) the largest in Europe unsupported by pillars. The churches (nearly fifty) include the cathedral (1552-1754); St Antony (1230-1307); St Justina (16th century); and the chapel of the Annunciation (1303), with frescoes by Giotto. The 'saint's school' is adorned with frescoes by Titian and his pupils, illustrating the life of St Antony. Donatello's fine equestrian statue of Gattamelata, the Venetian captain, stands in front of the church of St Antony. Padua has enjoyed greatest fame from her university, founded by the emperor Frederick II. in 1221, though the fine Renaissance buildings date only from 1493-1552; there are now 68 teachers and over 1200 students. To it is attached one of the oldest botanical gardens in Europe, and a library (1629) of 158,500 vols. and 2500 MSS. The city museum (1881) contains antiquarian, art, and numismatic collections, a library, and archives. Pop. (1901) 82,300. Padua's most celebrated natives were Livy and the painter Mantegna. Patavia came under the Roman supremacy in 215 b.c. Venice held it from 1405 to 1797, and then Austria, until it was incorporated in Italy in 1866.