Paignton (Pain'ton), a Devon watering-place, 2 1/4 miles S. of Torquay. Near it is a ruined palace of the bishops of Exeter. Pop. of the urban district (1901) 8385.


Painswick, a Gloucestershire town, 6 miles SSE. of Gloucester. Pop. of urb. dist. 8385.


Pakenham, a Suffolk parish, 5 miles ENE. of Bury St Edmunds. Pop. 943.


Pakhoi, a seaport of China, opened to trade in 1876, stands on the northern shore of the Gulf of Tonking. Pop. 25,000.


Palamcottah, a town of India, in Madras, 50 miles NNE. of Cape Comorin. Pop. 40,000.


Palanpur', capital of a native state in Gujarat, lies 83 miles N. of Ahmedabad by rail. Pop.

17,800. The state has an area of 3177 sq. m. and a pop. of 222,700.


Palap'we, or Palap'ye, capital of the Bechuana-land protectorate, is 60 miles NE. of Shoshong, long Khama's chief town, near the Transvaal frontier, and on the trade route and telegraph line to Matabeleland. Pop. 10,000.


Palat'inate (so called because governed originally by a Count Palatine - i.e. 'of the palace;' Ger. Pfalz), two German states, which were united previously to the year 1623. They were distinguished as the Upper and Lower Palatinates, having Amberg and Heidelberg as their capitals; and they are now divided among Bavaria, Prussia, Baden, and Hesse.

Palatine Hill

Pal'atine Hill (Palatium or Mons Palatinus), the central hill of the famous seven on which ancient Rome (q.v.) was built.


Palem'bang, capital of a residency (formerly an independent kingdom) near the south end of Sumatra, stands on the river Musi, 50 miles from its mouth; the houses of the town are built on great log rafts on either bank. Pop. 50,000.


Palencia (anc. Pallantia), a walled city of Spain, in Old Castile, 180 miles by rail NNW. of Madrid and 29 NNE. of Valladolid. The Gothic cathedral was built 1321-1504. The university founded here in 1208 was removed to Salamanca in 1239. Pop. 16,277. Area of the province of Palencia, 3256 sq. m.; pop. 195,000.


Palenque (Palen'kay), great ruins in Mexico, between the Michol and Chacamas rivers, in the north of the state of Chiapas, 6 1/2 miles E. of the village of Santo Domingo de Palenque. They extend over 20 to 30 acres, are buried in a dense tropical forest, and consist of vast terraced truncated pyramids, surmounted by solid edifices of cut stone, covered with figures in relief, or figures and hieroglyphics in stucco, with remains of brilliant colours. 'The Palace' is 228 feet long, 180 feet deep, and 25 feet high, not reckoning the terrace. See works by Charnay (Eng. trans. 1887) and La Rochefoucauld (Paris, 1888).


Palestine, capital of Anderson county, Texas, 151 miles by rail N. of Houston. Pop. 8300.


Palestrina (Pa-les-tree'na; anc. Prœneste), an Italian city, 22 miles E. by S. of Rome, on the slope of an offset of the Apennines, contains the chief castle of the Colonnas and the palace of the Barberini, the owners after 1630. It is built almost entirely upon the gigantic substructions of the ancient Temple of Fortune. Pop. 5855.