Paler'mo, formerly the capital of Sicily, now in point of population the fifth city of Italy, an archbishopric, and a seaport. It stands on a bay in the north-west corner of the island, at the mouth of a fertile valley called the Conca d'Oro (' Golden Shell'), 120 miles by rail W. of Messina, and occupies a picturesque site backed by mountains - on the north by Mount Pellegrino. The cathedral of St Rosalia, built (1169-85) by an Englishman, Archbishop Walter, contains the tombs of Roger I. and the emperors Henry VI. and Frederick II. There are close upon three hundred churches and chapels in Palermo. The royal palace, built by Roger I., is principally of Spanish construction; other public buildings are the archbishop's palace, town-house, law-courts, university, arsenal, etc. The university (1447) has 70 teachers and over 1100 students. There are also a national museum, the town library (1775) with 141,000 vols. and 2640 MSS., and the national library (1804) with 110,000 vols. and 12,000 MSS. Machinery, essences, sumach, turnery, iron-founding, books, gloves, and shoes represent the industries. But Palermo is an important seaport, with a large, though not growing, trade. Oranges, lemons, dried fruits, sumach, tartar, grain, oils, manna, sulphur, wine, animal produce, and lemon-juice are the principal exports. The imports include grain and vegetables, cottons and woollens, coals, live-stock, iron, timber, groceries, silk, hides, petroleum, machinery, linen, metals, and glassware. Population, 310,000. Panormus, the stronghold of Carthage in Sicily, was conquered successively by Pyrrhus (276 B.C.), the Romans (254 B.C.), the Vandals (440 a.d.), Beli-sarius (535), the Saracens (835), the Pisans (1063), and the Normans from Apulia (1071). Henceforward it was the capital of the kingdom of Sicily, first of the Norman kingdom, then of that of the Angevins and their Spanish successors. It suffered severely from earthquakes in 1693, 1726, and 1823. The city revolted against the Bourbon kings of Naples in 1820 and 1848, and was freed from them in 1860 by Garibaldi.