Pamphylia, anciently a country on the south coast of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia.


Panc'sova, a town of Hungary, on the Temes, near its junction with the Danube, 9 miles NE. of Belgrade. Pop. 19,000.


Pandharpur, a town of India, 112 miles SE. of Poona, on a branch of the Kistna. Pop. 36,910.


Pangbourne, a Berkshire parish, on the Thames, here joined by the Pang, 5 1/2 miles WNW. of Reading. Pop. 885.


Pan'ipat, a town of the Punjab, 53 miles N. of Delhi, near the old bank of the Jumna, and on the great military road of northern India to Afghanistan. Hence it has been the scene of three great battles (1526, 1556, 1761) between the people of India and her invaders, the two first Mongol victories, and the third an Afghan victory over the Mahrattas. Pop. 27,547.


Panjab. See Punjab.


Panjdeh. See Penjdeh.


Panjim. See Goa.


Panna, capital of a native state (area, 2568 sq. m.; pop. 239,333) in Bundelkhand, 173 miles SW. of Allahabad. Pop. 14,676.

Pannanich Wells

Pannanich Wells. See Ballater.


Pannonia, an ancient Roman province, bounded N. and E. by the Danube, and including most of modern Hungary, Slavonia, Bosnia, Croatia, Car-niola, Styria, and Lower Austria.


Panormus. See Palermo.


Panshanger, the seat of Earl Cowper, 2 1/2 miles W. by N. of Hertford.


Panteg, a Monmouthshire parish, with ironworks, 2 miles SE. of Pontypool. Pop. 7746.


Pantellaria, a volcanic island in the Mediterranean, 36 miles in circumference, and 60 miles SW. of Sicily. It is a great convict prison.

Papal States

Papal States. See Church (States of the).

Papa Stour

Pap'a Stour, a Shetland island, 34 miles NW. of Lerwick. Pop. 274.

Papa Westray

Pap'a Westray, an Orkney island, 25 miles N. by E. of Kirkwall. Pop. 295.


Papenburg (Pa-pen-boorg'), a small port of Hanover, 25 miles W. of Oldenburg by rail and near the Ems. Pop. 6916.


Paphlagonia, anciently a province of Asia Minor, along the south shore of the Black Sea.


Paphos, two ancient cities in Cyprus. Old Paphos (now Kyklia) was in the western part of the island, 1 1/4 mile from the coast, and was famous for a temple of Venus, who was said to have risen from the sea close by. The other Paphos (Papho or Baffa) was on the sea-coast, 8 miles W., and was the place in which Paul preached.


Papua (Papoo'a). See New Guinea.


Par, a Cornish seaport, 4 1/4 miles SSW. of Lostwithiel. Pop. 1634.


Para, the name which the river Tocantins (q.v.) receives in its lower course (138 miles), 20 miles wide opposite the city of Para. The Paranan, an arm of the Amazon, which isolates Marajo Island, runs into it.


Para (official name Belem), a seaport of Brazil, on the east bank of the river Para, 70 miles from its mouth. The harbour is nearly landlocked by wooded islands. Tram-cars and telephones are in general use, and there is a railway to Braganca (108 miles). The principal buildings are the theatre, the government building, custom-house, and cathedral (1720). Para is the emporium of the Amazon river-trade, supplying the interior with foreign goods, and exporting india-rubber, cacao, Brazil nuts, fish, etc. Pop. 50,600. - Area of the state of Para, 443,653 sq. m.; pop. 335,000.