Parahyba (Par-a-ee'ba), capital of the Brazilian state of Parahyba, on the Parahyba River, 10 miles from the sea. It has a cathedral, government palace (formerly the Jesuit college), and large sugar-mill (1889). At the mouth of the river is a bar; but a railway (12 miles) was built in 1889 to the port and pier of Cabedello. The exports include sugar, cotton, and cotton-seed, chiefly to Great Britain. Pop. 18,000. - The state, the easternmost in the republic, has an area of 28,854 sq. m. and a population of 460,000. - A more important Parahyba River, farther south, enters the Atlantic in the state of Rio de Janeiro, after a course of nearly 500 miles. It is navigable for 50 miles from its mouth.
Paramatta. See Parramatta.
Paray-le-Monial (Par-ay-leh-Mon-ee-ahl'), a town in the French dep. of Saone-et-Loire, 48 miles by rail W. by N. of Macon. In its chapel Mary Alacoque (d. 1690) believed herself to have had a vision of the Saviour, and it is now the object of pilgrimages. Pop. 4141.
Paris, (1) capital of Bourbon county, Kentucky, on Stoner Creek, 19 miles by rail NE. of Lexington. It has a military institute, and manufactures whisky, flour, cordage, etc. Pop. 6000. - (2) Capital of Lamar county, Texas, 98 miles by rail NE. of Dallas, making brooms, furniture, sashes, wagons, ploughs, etc. Pop. 9354.
Parkersburg, capital of Wood county, West Virginia, on the Ohio River (here crossed by a railway bridge 1 1/3 mile long), at the mouth of the Little Kanawha, 195 miles by rail E. by N. of Cincinnati. It has great oil-refineries, chemical works, lumber-mills, and manufactories of furniture, barrels, etc. Pop. 11,850.
Parnahyba (Parnaee'ba), a river of Brazil, rises in the Serra Mangabeiras, about 9° S. lat., throughout its course (650 miles) forms the boundary between the states of Maranhao and Piauhy, and enters the Atlantic by six mouths. Fourteen miles from its mouth is the unhealthy town of Parnahyba; pop. 8000. See also Parana.
Parnassus, a mountain in Phocis, on whose southern slope lay Delphi (q.v.), the seat of the famous oracle, and the fountain of Castalia. The highest peak (8036 feet) was the scene of the orgies of the worship of Dionysus (Bacchus); all the rest was sacred to Apollo and the Muses.
Paropami'sus, an ancient name still used for a ridge, less than 1000 feet above the adjacent country, which forms part of the northern edge of the great plateau of Persia and Afghanistan, almost connecting the Hindu Kush(q.v.)on the east with the Elburz Mountains to the west.