Parma, a town of Italy, from 1545 to 1860 the capital of the duchy of Parma, is situated on the ancient Via Emilia, and on the river Parma, 12 1/2 miles S. from the Po, and by rail 56 miles NW. of Bologna and 79 SE. of Milan. It is surrounded by walls and has a citadel (1591); the streets are straight and wide. Of some sixty churches the chief is the Lombardo-Romanesque cathedral (1059-74), with frescoes by Correggio. Other notable edifices are the splendid baptistery (1196-1281); the church of Madonna della Steccata (1521-39), containing the tombs of the Farnese dukes; the ducal palace, containing art-galleries (Correggio's works), a library (214,000 vols. and 4500 MSS.), the archives, etc.; and numerous other palaces, public and private. There are also a university (1599), with 45 teachers and over 250 students, a music school, a museum of antiquities, etc. The principal industrial products are pianofortes, silks, cast-iron wares, woollens, earthenware, paper, soap, etc. Pop. 49,370. Founded by the Etruscans, Parma became a Roman colony in 183 B.C. It was besieged and taken by Frederick II. in 1245, and again invested, but without success, in 1248. It then belonged successively to the houses of Correggio, Este, Visconti, and in 1511 to the pope.