Penrith, a market-town of Cumberland, in a picturesque and fertile valley, on the outskirts of the Lake District, 18 miles SSE. of Carlisle. It has a fine old ruined castle, where Richard III. (then Duke of Gloucester) is said to have resided, and a grammar-school (1395; refounded 1564). In the churchyard are two ancient monuments, the 'Giant's Grave' and the 'Giant's Thumb,'often visited by Sir Walter Scott; and north-east of the town is the wooded Beacon (937 feet). There are sawmills, tanneries, and breweries, but the chief trade is agricultural. Pop. (1851) 6668; (1881) 9268; (1901) 9182. See works by J. Walker (1856), and G. Watson (1893).
Penryn (Corn, 'head of the river'), a town of Cornwall, at the head of a creek of Falmouth harbour, 3 miles NW. of Falmouth town, with which it returns one member to parliament (till 1885 two). Scarce a trace remains of Glasney College, founded in 1264 for thirteen Black Augustinian Canons; and none of a palace of the bishops of Exeter. Neighbouring quarries supply the famous Penryn granite - the material of Waterloo Bridge, the Chatham Docks, etc.; and the town has besides some manufactures of paper, woollen cloth, gunpowder, etc. Incorporated by James I., it was taken by Fairfax in 1646. Pop. (1851) 3959; (1901) 3190.
Pensaco'la, the capital of Escambia county, Florida, is 244 miles by rail ENE. of New Orleans, on the west shore of a deep bay opening into the Gulf of Mexico. The entrance is defended by Fort McRee and Fort Pickens, the latter on Santa Rosa Island; and near by is a navy-yard. Pensacola contains foundries and lumber and planing mills, and ships much yellow pine. It was settled by the Spaniards before 1700, occupied by the British in 1763-81, taken from them by Andrew Jackson in 1814, and passed with Florida to the United States in 1819. Pop. (1880) 6845; (1900) 17,747.
Penshurst, a parish of Kent, 4 miles SW. of Tunbridge; pop. 1677. Penshurst Place, a splen. did old mansion, was the birthplace of Sir Philip Sidney and Algernon Sidney.
Pentland Firth, a dangerous but much navigated channel between the Atlantic and German Oceans, separating the mainland of Scotland from the Orkney Islands. It is 14 miles long and 6 1/4 broad at the narrowest. The Pentland Skerries, 5 miles NE. of Duncansbay Head, consist of two islets and several rocks. On the larger of the islets is a lighthouse (1794).
Pentland Hills, Scotland, extend 16 miles SW. from a point 3 miles S. of Edinburgh, through the counties of Midlothian, Peebles, and Lanark, have a breadth of 4 to 6 miles, and attain a maximum height in Carnethy (1890 feet) and Scald Law (1898). In the battle of the Pentlands or Rullion Green, 2 miles NNW. of Penicuik, Sir Thomas Dalyell routed 900 westland Covenanters, 28th November 1666.