Pentonville, a populous district in London in the parish of St James's, Clerkenwell, the first buildings in which were erected in 1773 on fields belonging to Henry Penton, Esq. The name has since been extended to part of Islington parish, in which stands (in Caledonian Road) Pentonville Prison, built in 1840-42.


Penza, a large rural town of Russia, 330 miles by rail SE. of Moscow, has a cathedral (17th century), a botanical garden, and manufactures of paper, soap, etc. Pop. 60,000. - The government has an area of 14,992 sq. m., and a pop. of 1,470,500.


Peo'ria, capital of Peoria county, Illinois, on the west bank of the Illinois River, at the outlet of Peoria Lake, 161 miles by rail SW. of Chicago. It is an important railway centre, and is connected by steamboat navigation with the Mississippi and by canal with Lake Michigan. It has a Roman Catholic cathedral, a high school, a medical college, three hospitals, and ten parks, the largest Jefferson (35 acres). Mines of bituminous coal supply the great distilleries, breweries, foundries, manufactories of flour, oatmeal, starch, glucose, pottery, etc. In the lower city are large stockyards. Pop. (1880) 29,259; (1900) 56,100.


Pera, a suburb of Constantinople (q.v.).


Perak', a Malay state on the west side of the Malay peninsula, since 1874 under the protection of Britain. Area, 7950 sq. m.; pop. (1879) 55,880; (1901) 329,665. The interior attains 8000 feet above sea-level. The soil is fertile, and covered mostly with luxuriant vegetation. Tin is the chief product, and after it lead, besides rice, sugar, tobacco, coffee, tea, spices, etc. See M'Nair's Perak and the Malays (1877).

Percys Cross

Percy's Cross, a Northumbrian monument, 6 miles SSE. of Wooler, to Sir Ralph Percy, who fell fighting against Edward IV. (1463).


Perekop, Isthmus of, connecting the Crimea (q.v.) with the mainland of Russia. In the north of it is the small town of Perekop; pop. 5000.


Pereslavl, a town of Russia, 96 miles NE. of Moscow by rail. It has a 12th-c. cathedral, cotton-manufactures, and lake-fisheries. Pop. 7466.


Per'gamus, or Pergamum, an ancient city of Mysia in Asia Minor, on the river Caicus, 15 miles from its mouth. It still exists as Bergama, and is noted for the splendour of its ruined temples, palaces, aqueducts, gymnasia, amphitheatres, and city walls. These were excavated for the Prussian government in 1878-86.


Perim (Per-eem'), a barren island, since 1883 a coaling and telegraph station belonging to Britain, in the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, at the southern entrance to the Red Sea, 97 miles W. of Aden, 1 1/2 from the Arabian shore, and 9 from the African. It is 3 1/2 miles long by 2 1/2 wide, and crescent shaped, the two horns embracing a deep and spacious harbour. The island, held by the British in 1799-1800, and again occupied in 1857, is under the jurisdiction of Bombay Presidency. Pop. about 400, mostly coolie coal-heavers. See H. Spalding, Perim as it is (1890).