Perth, the county town of Perthshire, on the right bank of the tidal Tay, 43 miles NNW. of Edinburgh, 22 WSW. of Dundee, and 62 NE. of Glasgow. The beauty of its surroundings - the noble river; the two wooded heights, Moncreiffe and Kinnoull Hills, 725 and 730 feet high; and away to the north, the Grampians - makes the ' Fair City' worthy of the name. A handsome nine-arch bridge (1772; widened 1871), 840 feet long, and stretching over a waterway of 590 feet, leads to the suburb of Bridgend, where Ruskin spent much of his childhood; along the Tay's west bank extend two beautiful public parks, the North and South Inches, 98 and 72 acres in area. St John's Church is the only old building - a cruciform Decorated pile, with an earlier central square tower. Other edifices are St Ninian's Episcopal Cathedral (1850-90), an Early Middle Pointed structure; the Tudor municipal buildings (1879), the Grecian county buildings (1819-67), the city hall (1844), the infirmary (1837-69), and the penitentiary and general prison for Scotland (1812-59), besides the water-works (1830-80), two museums, the Albert statue (1864), and the auction-mart (1875). Railways have largely diverted the river-trade; and dyeing is now the leading industry, with manufactures of ink, gaugeglasses, linen, iron, beer, etc. A royal burgh since 1210 or earlier, and taking precedence of all others save Edinburgh, Perth returns one member. Pop. (1831) 19,238; (1901) 32,873.
Perth, or St Johnstoun, as it was formerly called, has a wealth of historic memories - the bloody combat on the North Inch between sixty members of the clans Chattan and Kay (1396); the murder of James I. (1437); Knox's 'thundering sermon against idolatry' in St John's (1559); the Gowrie Conspiracy (1600); and Montrose's victory of Tippermuir (1644); besides sixteen ecclesiastical councils and fourteen parliaments, and visits innumerable from royal personages, including the two Pretenders and Queen Victoria. See Perth Memorabilia (1806), Maidment's Chronicle of Perth (Maitland Club, 1831), and works by Penny (1836), Lawson (1847), Peacock (1849), and J. Wilson (1860).
Perth, the capital of Western Australia, occupies a picturesque site on the north bank of the Swan River, 12 miles from Fremantle, its port, at the mouth. The buildings include a town-hall, Protestant (1888) and R. C. cathedrals, mechanics' institute and museum, and the governor's residence. Pop. (1881) 5044; (1901) 36,274.