Perthshire, the fourth largest county of Scotland, bounded by Inverness, Aberdeen, Forfar, Fife, Kinross, Clackmannan, Stirling, Dumbarton, and Argyll shires. Its greatest length, from east to west, is 77 miles; its greatest breadth, from north to south, 68 miles; and till 1891 its area was 2601 sq. m., or 1,664,690 acres, of which 38,274 were water. In that year no fewer than eighteen alterations were made by the boundary commissioners, Perthshire receiving eight small enclaves from Forfar, Fife, Kinross, and Stirling shires, whilst giving off to the last three a like number, including the Culross and Tulliallan portion (13,125 acres). Partly Lowland, but mainly Highland (Strathmore the dividing line), it is called by Scott 'the fairest portion of the northern kingdom,' and such, indeed, it is, with its mountains and glens, its rivers and lakes, its forests and fertile vales. The chief rivers are the Forth and Tay, the former receiving the Teith, Allan, and Devon, the latter the Tummel, Lyon, Isla, Braan, Almond, and Earn; whilst amongst upwards of eighty lakes are Lochs Tay, Ericht, Earn, Rannoch, Lydoch, Katrine, Achray, Ven-nachar, and Menteith. In the south rise the Ochils, with Dunmyat (1375 feet), and Blairdenon Hill (2072); in the south-east the Sidlaw Hills, with Dunsinane (1012) and King's Seat (1235); and the Highland area is largely occupied by the Grampians, of whose forty-six summits exceeding 2300 feet may be mentioned Ben Lawers (with cairn, 4004), Benmore (3843), Ben-y-Gloe (3671), Schiehallion (3547), Ben Vorlich (3224), Ben Ledi (2875), Ben Vrackie (2757), and Ben Venue (2393). The soil is extremely varied, in places of great fertility - e.g. in Strathearn and in the Carse of Gowrie, which skirts the north side of the Tay's estuary; but barely a fifth of the entire surface is in tillage, the rest being pasture, woods, deer-forests, mountain, and desolate moorland, such as Rannoch. The woods cover nearly 100,000 acres; and the annual rental of the Perthshire deer-forests, grouse-moors, and rod- and net-fishings exceeds in some years £70,000. Ancient divisions were Athole (N.), Rannoch (NW.), Breadalbane (W.), Balquhidder (SW.), Menteith (S.), Perth (SE.), Gowrie (E.), Stormont and Strathearn (central). The county since 1885 returns two members, one for the eastern and one for the western division, besides one for Perth. Other towns and villages are Aberfeldy, Abernethy, Auchterarder, Birnam, Blair-Athole, Blairgowrie, Callander, Comrie, Coupar-Angus, Crieff, Doune, Dunblane, Dunkeld, Pitlochry, Scone, and Stanley. The Roman camp at Ardoch is famous; and Perthshire contains the battlefields of the Grampians, Tippermuir, Killie-crankie, and Sheriffmuir; whilst possessing memories of Bruce, Queen Mary, Rob Roy, Burns, Scott, Lady Nairne, Wordsworth, and Queen Victoria. The mansions, which are very numerous, include Taymouth, Drummond, and Blair castles. Pop. (1801) 125,583 (1831)142,166; (1881) 129,007; (1901) 123,283, of whom 11,524 were Gaelic-speaking. See works by Drummond (1879), Marshall (1880), Hunter (1883), and Millar (1890).