Peru, (1) a city of Illinois, at the head of navigation on the Illinois River, 100 miles by rail WSW. of Chicago. It contains zinc-works, a foundry, a plough-factory, and several icehouses. Pop. 7000. - (2) Capital of Miami county, Indiana, on the Wabash River, and on the Wabash and Erie Canal, 75 miles by rail N. of Indianapolis. Its factories produce woollens, bagging, furniture, basket-ware, etc. Pop. 8500.


Pes'aro (anc. Pisaurum), a town of Italy, on the right bank of the Foglia, here crossed by a bridge of Trajan's age, 1 mile from the Adriatic and 37 miles NW. of Ancona by rail. Walled and defended by a citadel (1474) and a fort, it has two cathedrals. Pop. 25,100. Pesaro is associated with Tasso, and was Rossini's birthplace.

Pescadores Islands

Pescadores Islands. See Formosa.


Peschiera (Pes-kee-ay'ra), a fortress of Italy, a member of the Quadrilateral, stands partly on an island in the Mincio and partly on the right bank of that river, at its outlet from the Lake of Garda, 14 miles by rail W. of Verona. Pop. 2360.


Peshaw'ar, or Peshawur, a town of India, 10 1/2 miles from the entrance of the Khyber Pass, 190 E. by S. of Kabul, and 276 by rail NW. of Lahore. It is since 1903 the capital of the North-west Frontier Province (formerly in the Punjab). Although occupying a strategic position of the utmost importance, its fortifications are inconsiderable. Pop. about 100,000.


Petcho'ra, a large river in the north of European Russia, rises on the western slope of the Urals, flows N. through the eastern parts of the governments of Vologda and Archangel, then SE. for 150 miles, and finally sweeping northward, and expanding into an isleted estuary 30 miles wide, falls into the Arctic Ocean, after a course of 975 miles. See a work by Seebohm (1880).


Peterhof (Pay'ter-hof), a palace of the emperor of Russia, on the S. shore of the Gulf of Finland, 18 miles W. of St Petersburg. Built by Peter the Great in 1711, it contains fine paintings, and is surrounded by beautiful parks. The town of Peterhof has 14,298 inhabitants.


Petersburg. See St Petersburg.


Petersburg, the third city of Virginia, on the south bank of the Appomattox River, 23 miles by rail S. of Richmond. The falls above supply water-power for tobacco-factories, foundries, cotton, flour, and paper mills. In 1864 Grant, failing to take Richmond, besieged Petersburg, and was repulsed with heavy loss. Pop. 22,680.


Petersfield, a Hampshire market-town, 20 miles NNE. of Portsmouth by rail. Till 1832 it returned two members, and then till 1885 one. Pop. of parish, 3270.


Peterwardein (Paytervar'dine), one of the strongest fortresses in the Austrian dominions, is situated in a marshy, unhealthy locality on the Danube's right bank, 44 miles by rail NW. of Belgrade, and is connected with Neusatz opposite by a bridge of boats. Pop. of town, 5603. •