Piacenza (P'yachentz'a), a city of northern Italy, on the right bank of the Po, a little below its confluence with the Trebbia, 43 miles by rail SE. of Milan, and 35 NW. of Parma. It is defended with bastioned walls and an outer ring of forts. The cathedral, in the Lombard-Romanesque style (1122-1233), has an immense crypt, a campanile 223 feet high, and paintings by L. Carracci, Guercino, etc. The church of Sant' Antonino, the original cathedral, was founded in 324, but has been several times rebuilt. The church of Santa Maria della Campagna is adorned with fine frescoes by Pordenone; and it was for San Sisto that Raphael painted the celebrated Sistine Madonna, sold in 1754 by the monks to Frederick Augustus of Saxony. Among the other buildings are the Palazzo Farnese (1558), once a sumptuous edifice, but since 1800 in use as barracks; the communal palace (1281); the palace of justice; and 2 miles E. the theological seminary founded by Cardinal Alberoni. The municipal library contains 120,000 volumes. The principal square is adorned with colossal bronze equestrian statues of Alessandro and Ranuccio Farnese. Manufactures of silks, cottons, pottery, hats, etc. are carried on. Founded as Placentia by the Romans in 219 b.c., Piacenza was captured by the Gauls in 200 and by Totila in 546, was the scene of two church councils in 1095 and 1132, was sacked by Sforza in 1447, and finally was united with Parma (q. v.). Pop. 36,987.