Pisa (Pee-za), one of the oldest cities of Italy, the rival of Venice and Genoa, is situated on the Arno, 6 miles from its mouth, by rail 49 miles W. of Florence, and 13 NE. of Leghorn. It was formerly a great port, but as the river has silted up and long ceased to be navigable, its commerce has been transferred to Leghorn. The cathedral (1063-1118), with a noble dome, fine paintings by Cimabue, Andrea del Sarto, etc, has the form of a Latin cross, 311 feet long by 252 wide; the nave is 109 feet high. Externally it has a magnificent facade of four superimposed rows of pilasters and arches, and fine bronze doors by Giovanni da Bologna and others. Near the cathedral stands the round marble campanile, the 'Leaning Tower of Pisa' (1174-c. 1350), a magnificent specimen of the southern Romanesque architecture, which is 183 feet high, and deviates 14 feet from the perpendicular - a peculiarity not due to original design. The marble Baptistery, or Church of St John (1152-1278), opposite the cathedral, is circular, and supports a dome, crowned with a cupola. The interior, noted for its wonderful echo, contains the grand and elaborate pulpit of Niccola Pisano (1260) and a large marble font. The beginning of the Campo Santo, the famous burial-place, was several loads of earth brought from Jerusalem; in 1278-83 it was surrounded by cloisters by Giovanni Pisano, whose walls were adorned with fresco-paintings by Orcagna and others. The university (1338) has a natural history museum, a botanical garden, a library (1742) of 120,000 volumes, 60 lecturers, and 600 students. Amongst natives may be named the popes Eugenius III. and Nicholas V., the Visconti, Giovanni (but not Niccola) Pisano, and Galileo. The industrial activity is now confined to cottons, silks, ribbons, and the working of coral and alabaster. Dromedaries are bred at a royal farm near. Pop. 61,350.