Pontianak', capital of the western division of Dutch Borneo, near the mouth of the river Kapuas. Pop. 5000.


Pontigny (Ponteen-yee'), a village of the French dep. of Yonne, 18 miles SE. of Auxerre, with a famous Cistercian monastery. Three English archbishops retired hither - Becket, Langton, and St Edmund, the last being buried here. The monastery was devastated by the Huguenots in 1567, and destroyed at the Revolution; but the church (1150-70) is the most perfect Cistercian church in existence.

Pontine Marshes

Pontine Marshes (Lat. Pometinœ Paludes), the S. part of the Roman Campagua, extending 26 miles SE. to the sea, and 17 broad. Many attempts have been made to drain them.


Pontresina (Pontrehzee'na), a tourist centre in the Swiss canton of Grisons, in the Upper Enga-dine, on the road to the Bernina Pass. Pop. 483.


Pontypool, a market-town of Monmouthshire, on the Afon Llwydd, 9 miles N. by W. of Newport. Its 17th-century japanned wares have long been a thing of the past, and iron and tinplate works, brewing, and coal-mining now furnish employment. Pop. 6200.


Pontypridd, a town of Glamorgan, 12 miles NW. of Cardiff by rail, at the junction of the Rhondda and the Tarf. It has a famous one-arched bridge (1750), iron and coal mines, iron and brass foundries, and chemical and other manufactures - to which is due its rapid growth from a mere village at the beginning of the 19th century. Pop. (1881) 12,317; (1901) 32,316.


Poona, or Puna, a town of India, 119 miles by rail SE. of Bombay, is the military capital of the Deccan and seat of the government of the presidency during half the year. The city is embosomed in gardens, but its streets are mostly narrow or crooked, and the houses poor. Under the peshwas the city was the capital of the Mahratta princes; it was occupied and annexed by the British in 1818. Here have been built the Deccan College and the College of Science, the latter for training civil engineers, a normal school and normal college, a high school, etc. The Europeans live chiefly at the cantonments, north-west of the city. The natives manufacture cottons and silks, gold and silver jewellery, ivory and grass ornaments, and clay figures. Pop. (1851) 73,209; (1881) 129,751; (1901) 153,320.


Popayan (Popi'an), capital of the dep. of Cauca in Colombia, stands in a fertile plain, 5700 feet above sea-level, near the river Cauca. It has a ruined cathedral and a university. Pop. 10,000.


Poperinghe (Fr. pron. Poperang), a town of Belgium, 4 miles from the French frontier and 8 W. of Ypres by rail. It manufactures lace, linens, and woollen cloths. Pop. 11,565.


Poplar, a parish of E. London.


Popocatepetl ('smoking mountain'), a conical volcano (17,784 feet) 40 miles SE. of the city of Mexico. No eruption has been recorded since 1540; it still smokes, however. In and around its crater (5165 feet in diameter, and nearly 1000 deep) much sulphur is obtained.