Pozzuoli (Potz-oo-ol'ee) a city of Italy, on the Bay of Naples, 7 miles W. of Naples by tramway, is interesting from its classic memorials - the cathedral (once the Temple of Augustus), the Serapeum, and the amphitheatre in which Nero fought as a gladiator, which could seat 30,000 spectators. There are also remains of temples to Diana and Neptune, and of the ancient harbour. Behind the town is the Solfatara, a half-extinct volcano, from which issue currents of hot sulphureous gases, and springs of saline water. In the neighbourhood are Avernus (q.v.); the royal hunting-lodge Astoni; the Lucrine lake, celebrated for its oysters; the ruins of BaiAe and CumAe; and the Lake of Agnano, with the famous Grotta del Cane. A little west is a branch of the famous Armstrong works at Elswick, near Newcastle, established here (1888-90) with the support of the Italian government. Pop. 21,967. The ancient Puteoli was made a Roman colony in 194 b.c., and subsequently became virtually the port of Rome, and the first emporium of commerce in Italy. It was destroyed by Alaric, Genseric, and Totila, and, though rebuilt by Byzantine Greeks, it was sacked by Saracens (10th century) and Turks (1550), and ruined by earthquakes (1198 and 1538). St Paul landed there.