Prague (Ger. Prag; Czech Praha), the capital of Bohemia, is situated at the base and on the slope of the hills which skirt both sides of the isleted Moldau, 217 miles by rail NNW. of Vienna and 118 SSE. of Dresden. It offers a highly picturesque appearance from the beauty of its site, and the numerous lofty towers (more than seventy in number) which rise above the palaces, public buildings, and bridges of the city. The fortifications have been demolished since 1866. The royal Burg, on the Hradschin (240 feet), the ancient residence of the Dukes of Bohemia, dates mainly now from the 16th and 17th centuries, and has 440 rooms. The neighbouring cathedral of St Vitus (1344) is still unfinished, though building was resumed in 1867. Here are the splendid royal mausoleum (1589) and the shrine (1736) of St John of Nepomuk, containing 1 1/2 ton of silver. Of forty-seven other Catholic churches the chief are the domed Jesuit church of St Nicolas, and the Teyn church (1407; the old Hussite church), with Tycho Brahe's grave, and its marble statues of the Slavonic martyrs, Cyril and Methodius. Of five bridges and two railway viaducts the most striking is the Karlsbrucke (1357-1503, temporarily damaged by flood in 1890), 543 yards long, with gate-towers at either end, and statues of John of Nepomuk and other saints. Other noteworthy objects are the town-hall (1381-1884), the Pulverturm (1475), the new Czech Theatre (1883), the old Jewish graveyard, the Theresa Institution for Ladies, the vast Czerni Palace (now used as barracks), the Picture-gallery, and the Premonstratensian monastery of Strahow. Prague has numerous public gardens and walks, with several noble parks close by. The suburb of Karolinenthal, which is traversed by the great viaduct of the railway, and is of modern growth, has barracks, and manufacturing establishments; farther north is the great botanical garden. The university, founded in 1348, had 10,000 students at the beginning of the 15th century; but subsequently it had a long period of decay. It received a new constitution in 1881, having now two co-ordinate sides or sections, one German and one Czech, with respectively 150 and 210 teachers, and 1350 and 3200 students. It possesses a library of 195,000 volumes and 3800 manuscripts, a fine observatory, a botanical garden, etc. The manufactures include machinery, chemicals, leather, cotton, linen, gloves, beer, spirits, etc. Pop. with suburbs (1880) 293,822; (1900) 385,240; of the town proper (1900) 201,589, of whom 87 per cent. were Czechs, 2 per cent. Protestants, and 7 per cent. Jews.